II. Resources

  1. ASCVD Risk Estimator (may overestimate risk)
    1. http://static.heart.org/riskcalc/app/index.html#!/baseline-risk

III. Prevention: Approach

  1. Mnemonic: Remember your ABCDEFs
    1. Antiplatelet (e.g. Aspirin) or Anticoagulant
    2. Blood Pressure control
    3. Cholesterol management
    4. Diabetes management
    5. Exercise (or Cardiac Rehabilitation if indicated)
    6. Fish oil
    7. Smoking Cessation
  2. General
    1. Four health habits dramatically reduce risk
      1. Tobacco avoidance
      2. BMI <25 kg/m2 (but even <30 kg/m2 reduces risk)
      3. Eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily
      4. Aerobic Exercise >150 minutes per week
    2. Benefits
      1. Following all 4 habits reduces cardiovascular events by 40%
      2. Overall survival is extended 14 years in those following all 4 habits
      3. Even adopting 1 new health habit significantly reduces mortality
    3. References
      1. Akesson (2007) Arch Intern Med 167: 2122-27 [PubMed]
      2. King (2007) Am J Med 120:598-603 [PubMed]

IV. Management: Risk factor modification

  1. Heart Healthy Diet
    1. See DASH Diet
    2. See Mediterranean Diet (Heart Healthy Diet)
    3. See Low Fat Diet
  2. Weight loss (in Overweight patients)
    1. See Obesity Management
  3. Hypertension Management
    1. Blood Pressure control (Ideally less than 130/80)
  4. Tobacco Cessation
    1. Regardless of age, Tobacco Cessation reduces risk
      1. Hermanson (1988) N Engl J Med 319:1365-9 [PubMed]
    2. Overall mortality reduced as much as 36% in CHD
      1. Risk reduction more than medications (e.g. ASA)
      2. Critchley (2003) JAMA 290:86-97 [PubMed]
  5. Lower Cholesterol
    1. Diet or pharmacologic treatment
    2. LDL Cholesterol <100 mg/dl (very high risk patients should aim for <70 mg/dl)
      1. Each 40 mg/dl drop in LDL Cholesterol lowers cardiovascular risk by 20% over one year regardless of age
    3. HDL Cholesterol >40 mg/dl (50 mg/dl for women)
    4. Triglycerides <150 mg/dl
    5. See Statin use below
  6. Exercise
    1. See Exercise Prescription
    2. Moderate intensity aerobic Exercise (e.g. body pump, swim, bike, garden, walk>3 mph) >150 min/week (ideally >300) OR
      1. Vigorous intensity aerobic Exercise (e.g. bike >10 mph, jog, hike uphill with pack) >75 min/week (ideally >150)
    3. Combine with Muscle Strengthening of all major muscle groups at least twice weekly
    4. Wannamethee (2000) Circulation 102:1358-63 [PubMed]
  7. Diabetes Mellitus management
    1. Keep the Hemoglobin A1C less than 7% in Type I Diabetes and <8% in Type II Diabetes
  8. Fish Oil Supplementation
    1. See omega 3 Fatty Acid supplementation
    2. Fish oil (DHA and EPA) 1000 mg/day
    3. Reduces risk of death due to cardiovascular events
  9. Treat comorbid Major Depression
    1. See Depression Management in Cardiovascular Disease
    2. Increased risk of Coronary Artery Disease
    3. Risk of MI related death increased 3.5 fold
  10. Influenza Vaccine
    1. Lowers cardiovascular event risk by 50%
    2. Gurfinkle (2002) Circulation 105: 2143-7 [PubMed]

V. Management: Disproved strategies

  1. Anti-oxidant regimen
    1. Negates Statin and Niacin HDL-2 beneficial effects
    2. No proven efficacy
    3. Anti-oxidants
      1. Vitamin E 400 iu/day
        1. Increases cardiovascular risk, risk of Congestive Heart Failure and Hemorrhagic Stroke
        2. Not effective in coronary disease prevention
        3. Skekelle (2004) J Gen Intern Med 19:380-9 [PubMed]
      2. Vitamin C 500-1000 mg/day
      3. Beta Carotene 25000 u/day (increases cardiovascular risk)
      4. B Vitamins offer no benefit in Cardiac Risk
        1. Vitamin B12 Supplementation 400 mg qd
        2. Vitamin B6 supplementation 10 mg qd
        3. (2006) N Engl J Med 354:1567-77 [PubMed]
  2. Estrogen Replacement (Hormone Replacement Therapy)
    1. Stop HRT in those at risk for coronary disease
    2. No longer thought to be protective against CAD
    3. Data based on NIH Women's Health Initiative
    4. References
      1. (2002) JAMA 288:321-333 [PubMed]
      2. Waters (2002) 288:2432-40 [PubMed]

VI. Medications: Platelet activation inhibitors

  1. See Antiplatelet Therapy for Vascular Disease
  2. Aspirin
    1. Indication for primary prevention (no known Coronary Artery Disease)
      1. Framingham 10 year risk 10% or higher in age 50 to 69
        1. Benefits are less strong in age 60-69
    2. Dosing
      1. CAD risk: non-enteric coated 81 mg or enteric coated 162 mg orally daily
      2. CAD Disease: 162-325 mg orally daily
    3. Aspirin resistance confers 3x cardiovascular risk
      1. Consider lab screening in high risk patients
        1. Optical aggregation for Aspirin resistance
      2. Use Clopidogrel for Aspirin resistant patients
      3. Reference
        1. Gum (2003) J Am Coll Cardiol 41:961-5 [PubMed]
    4. Aspirin with Proton Pump Inhibitor
      1. Indicated for history of bleeding peptic ulcer
      2. Less bleeding risk than Clopidogrel
      3. Chan (2005) N Engl J Med 352:238-44 [PubMed]
    5. Aspirin use without vascular disease
      1. Overall NNT 254 on Aspirin for 7 years to prevent one cardiovascular event
        1. At the expense of 1 major bleeding episode in same group
        2. Berger (2011) Am Heart J 162(1): 115-24 [PubMed]
      2. Women without vascular disease
        1. Reduces stroke risk but not Myocardial Infarction risk
        2. Associated with higher risk of GI Bleeding
        3. Not recommended for women at low vascular risk
        4. Ridker (2005) N Engl J Med 352:1293-304 [PubMed]
      3. Prior Gastrointestinal Bleeding
        1. Avoid Aspirin (and other antiplatelet agents) for primary prevention after prior GI Bleed
        2. Limit Aspirin after GI Bleed to secondary prevention (known cardiovascular disease)
  3. Platelet ADP Receptor Antagonist (e.g. Clopidogrel or Plavix)
    1. See Platelet ADP Receptor Antagonist
    2. More effective than Aspirin in preventing CV events
    3. Avoid combining with Aspirin (except following stenting or other high risk indication)
    4. Indicated in known vascular disease
    5. Cannon (2002) Am J Cardiol 90:160-2 [PubMed]

VII. Medications: Antihypertensives

  1. Goal Blood Pressure
    1. CAD, CRF, DM: <130/80
    2. Other patients: <140/90 (consider as goal for most patients after JNC 8)
    3. Keep diastolic Blood Pressure >60 mmHg to maintain perfusion (especially in Diabetes Mellitus, age >60 years)
  2. First-line antihypertensives in CAD Prevention
    1. Beta-Blockers
      1. Metoprolol Succinate titrate up to 200 mg orally daily
      2. Continue for at least 3 years after MI, indefinately for CHF, Angina
    2. ACE Inhibitors
      1. Anticipate a small increase in Serum Creatinine on starting ACE Inhibitors (or ARBs)
      2. Stop or decrease ACE Inhibitor dose if Serum Creatinine rises >30% over baseline
    3. Thiazide Diuretics
      1. Chlorthalidone or Indapamide is preferred over Hydrochlorothiazide
  3. Other agents: Calcium Channel Blockers
    1. May be higher mortality in general CAD
      1. Especially avoid short acting agents (e.g. Nifedipine)
    2. Less effective CAD prevention than other agents
      1. Black (2003) JAMA 289:2073-82 [PubMed]
    3. Indications
      1. Rest and Variant Angina
      2. Silent ischemia
      3. Microvascular Angina (Syndrome X)
        1. Use in combination with nitrates
    4. Preparations
      1. Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker
        1. Consider for Hypertension, Angina (may be added to Beta Blocker)
        2. Amlodipine
      2. Non-Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker (e.g. Diltiazem, Verapamil)
        1. Avoid unless Beta Blocker not tolerated

VIII. Medications: AntiHyperlipidemic therapy with Statin

  1. Effective in preventing future cardiovascular events
  2. Benefit even in patients over age 80 years
  3. Goal LDL Cholesterol
    1. Most patients: 100 mg/dl
    2. High risk patients: <70 mg/dl (Intensive lipid lowering)
      1. NNT 20-40 to prevent one Myocardial Infarction or death
      2. LaRosa (2005) N Engl J Med 352:1425-35 [PubMed]
      3. Josan (2008) CMAJ 178(5): 576-84 [PubMed]
      4. Pedersen (2005) JAMA 294:2437-45 [PubMed]
  4. Statins independently lower CAD risk with Plaque stabilization and are first-line tools in preventive cardiology
    1. Collins (2004) Lancet 363:757-67 [PubMed]
    2. Maycock (2002) J Am Coll Cardiol 40:1777-85 [PubMed]
  5. Statins in low to moderate cardiovascular disease risk (10 year risk with Framingham Score of 6%)
    1. Number Needed to Treat (NNT) 80 on Statin for 10 years to prevent one significant cardiovascular event
    2. Tonelli (2011) CMAJ 183(16): E1189-1202 [PubMed]

IX. Medications: Reduce Homocysteine (e.g. Folic Acid)

  1. Supplementation only benefits venous events, but does not affect arterial cardiovascular risk
  2. Folic Acid supplementation 1000 mg daily
    1. Not beneficial post-stenting
      1. Lange (2004) N Engl J Med 350:2673-81 [PubMed]
  3. References
    1. Schnyder (2002) JAMA 288:973-9 [PubMed]
    2. Rimm (1998) JAMA 279:359-64 [PubMed]

X. Medications: Other

  1. See Post Myocardial Infarction Medications
  2. Supplements that show initial benefit
    1. Coenzyme Q10 60 mg PO bid (more helpful in reduction in Statin-Induced Myalgias)
      1. Singh (2003) Mol Cell Biochem 246:75-82 [PubMed]
  3. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators
    1. Used post-MI for high risk of ventricular arrhythmia
    2. Did not reduce mortality (n=674) over >30 months
    3. Hohnloser (2004) N Engl J Med 351:2481-8 [PubMed]

XI. Medications: Avoid NSAIDs (other than Aspirin)

  1. NSAIDs are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events
    1. Even short-term NSAID use 5 years after coronary event increases CAD event risk
      1. Associated with 19 more events in 1000 patients with CAD
    2. Antman (2007) Circulation 115(12):1634-42 [PubMed]
    3. Moore (2007) BMC Musculoskelet Disord 8:73 [PubMed]
    4. Schjerning Olsen (2011) Circulation 123(20):2226-35 [PubMed]
    5. Wehrmacker (2006) Compr Ther 32(4):236-9 [PubMed]
  2. Step-wise approach to Analgesics (in order of least to most cardiovascular risk)
    1. Acetaminophen (lowest cardiovascular risk)
    2. Aspirin (cardioprotective)
    3. Tramadol (but has other risks)
    4. Opioid Analgesics (e.g. Vicodin)
    5. Salsalate
    6. Naproxen (Naprosyn)
    7. Cox-2 selective NSAIDs such as Celecoxib or Diclofenac (most cardiovascular risk)
  3. References
    1. Prescriber's Letter (2008) 15(2): 8

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