II. Interpretation

  1. Positive Cardiac Risk Factor (Atherogenic)
    1. HDL < 35
    2. Total Cholesterol to HDL ratio
      1. Men > 5.0
      2. Women > 4.5
  2. Negative Cardiac Risk Factor (Protective)
    1. HDL > 60

III. Increased

  1. Medications
    1. Gemfibrozil
    2. Niacin
    3. Exogenous Estrogens
  2. Moderate Alcohol intake (1 ounce per day)
  3. Regular aerobic Exercise
    1. Graded increase with miles run per week
    2. Kokkinos (1995) Arch Intern Med 155(4):415-20 [PubMed]
  4. Weight loss (for obese patients)
    1. HDL increases 2 mg/dl for each 4.5 kg of weight loss

IV. Decreased

  1. Tobacco abuse
  2. Diabetes Mellitus
  3. Hypertriglyceridemia
  4. Menopause
  5. Obesity
  6. Puberty in males
  7. Uremia
  8. Anabolic Steroids
  9. Apolipoprotein deficiency
  10. Liver disease
  11. Tangier disease
  12. Medications
    1. Progestins
    2. Probucol

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window