II. Causes: Typically due to salt and water retention unless otherwise noted

  1. Antihypertensives
    1. Hydralazine
    2. Diazoxide (Hyperstat)
    3. Minoxidil
    4. Methyldopa
    5. Calcium Channel Blockers (e.g. Amlodipine)
    6. Beta Blockers
    7. Clonidine (Catapres)
  2. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
    1. Ibuprofen
    2. Celecoxib (Celebrex)
  3. Endocrine agents
    1. Corticosteroids
    2. Estrogen
    3. Progesterone
    4. Testosterone
    5. Insulin
    6. Thiazolidinedione (e.g. Actos, Avandia)
  4. Antidepressants
    1. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
    2. Trazodone
  5. Chemotherapy
    1. Interleukin-2 (Increased Vascular permeability)
    2. Interleukin-4
    3. Interferon alfa
    4. Docetaxel (Taxotere)
    5. Cyclophosphamide
    6. Cyclosporine
    7. Mithramycin
    8. Cytosine Arbinoside
    9. Granulocyte colony-stmulating factor
    10. Granulocyte-Macrophage colony stimulating factor
  6. Antipsychotics: Phenothiazines
    1. Thioridazine (Mellaril)
    2. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
    3. Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
    4. Thiothixene (Navane)
  7. Diuretic Abuse or Laxative abuse
    1. Increases renin and aldosterone levels
    2. Rebound salt retention on stopping medication
  8. Miscellaneous agents
    1. Acyclovir (Zovirax)
    2. Pramipexole (Mirapex)

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