II. Physiology: White Blood Cells (Leukocytes, WBC)

  1. Bone Marrow: Stem cells differentiation and storage
    1. Megakaryoblasts
      1. Platelets
    2. Erythroblasts
      1. Erythrocytes
    3. Lymphoblasts
      1. Lymphocytes (20-40% of peripheral WBCs)
    4. Myeloblasts develop into Granulocytes
      1. Neutrophil (40-60 of peripheral WBCs)
      2. Eosinophil (1-4% of peripheral WBCs)
      3. Basophil (0.5-1% of peripheral WBCs)
      4. Monocyte (2-8% of peripheral WBCs)
  2. Peripheral Blood
    1. Leukocytes remain in storage in Bone Marrow: 80-90%
      1. Proliferate and mature over 7 days
      2. Stored in the marrow up to 7 days
    2. Only 2-3% of Leukocytes enter circulation (unless mobilized)
      1. Life span of White Blood Cell in circulation 2-16 days
      2. Life span of White Blood Cell in body tissues 36 hours

III. Interpretation: Normal Range White Blood Cells (in 10^9/L)

  1. Age 12 hours old: 13.0 to 38.0
  2. Age 2 weeks old: 5.0 to 20.0
  3. Age 6 Months to 2 years: 6.0 to 17.5 (Mean 11.0)
  4. Age 4 Years: 5.5 to 15.5 (Mean 9.1)
  5. Age 6 Years: 5.0 to 14.5 (Mean 8.5)
  6. Age 8 to 16 Years: 4.5 to 13.5 (Mean 8.1)
  7. Age over 21 Years: 4.5 to 11.0 (Mean 7.4)
  8. Third trimester: 5.8 to 13.2
  9. Postpartum: Up to 12.6

IV. Interpretation: Increased White Blood Cell Count

  1. See Leukocytosis
  2. Neutrophilia (>7000/mm3 or >60%, most common cause)
  3. Lymphocytosis (>4500/mm3 or >40% of total)

V. Interpretation: Decreased White Blood Cell Count (Leukopenia)

  1. Neutropenia (most common cause)
  2. Lymphocytopenia
  3. Monocytopenia
  4. Eosinopenia

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Ontology: granulocyte (C0018183)

Definition (MSHCZE) Druh bílých krvinek (leukocytů) obsahujících zrnka, podle jejichž barvitelnosti (pro pozorování v mikroskopu) se g. dělí na neutrofily, eozinofily a bazofily, které se liší svými funkcemi. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are granulocytes. A granulocyte is a type of white blood cell.
Definition (NCI) A leucocyte with conspicuous cytoplasmic granules. In humans the granulocytes are also classified as polymorphonuclear leucocytes and are subdivided according to the staining properties of the granules into eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils.(On-line Medical Dictionary)
Definition (MSH) Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Definition (CSP) leukocytes with abundant neutrophilic, eosinophilic or basophilic granules in the cytoplasm; mature granulocytes are the neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D006098
SnomedCT 256909001, 48791004
LNC LP18643-4, LP133971-4, MTHU008674
English Granulocytes, Granulocytic, Granular leucocyte, Granular leukocyte, granulocytes, cells granulocyte, Granulocytic cells, granular leukocyte, Granulocyte, Granulocyte (cell), Granulocytic cell (cell), Granulocytic cell, Granulocytic cell, NOS, Granulocyte (body structure), Granulocytic cell (body structure), granulocyte
French Polynucléaires, Polynucléaire, Granulocytes, Granulocyte
Swedish Granulocyter
Czech granulocyty
Finnish Granulosyytit
Russian GRANULOTSITY, LEIKOTSITY ZERNISTYE, ГРАНУЛОЦИТЫ, ЛЕЙКОЦИТЫ ЗЕРНИСТЫЕ
Croatian GRANULOCITI
Latvian Granulocīti
Polish Krwinki białe ziarniste, Granulocyty
Norwegian Granulocytter
Spanish célula granulocítica (célula), célula granulocítica (estructura corporal), célula granulocítica, granulocito (célula), granulocito, Granulocitos
German Granulozyten
Italian Granulociti
Dutch Granulocyt, Granulocyten
Portuguese Granulócitos

Ontology: White Blood Cell Count procedure (C0023508)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) A measurement of the leukocytes in a biological specimen.
Definition (NCI) A test to determine the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood.
Definition (MSH) The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Definition (CSP) number of white blood cells per unit volume in venous blood.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
MSH D007958
SnomedCT 142914005, 165506007, 767002
CPT 85004
English White Blood Cell Count, Count, Leukocyte, Counts, Leukocyte, Leukocyte Count, Leukocyte Counts, Leukocyte Number, Leukocyte Numbers, Blood Cell Count, White, Number, Leukocyte, Numbers, Leukocyte, White Blood Cell Count procedure, leukocyte count (lab test), leukocyte count, White cells, Leukocyte count NOS, white blood cell count, white blood cell count procedure, White blood cell count NOS, Leucocyte count, Leukocytes, White Blood Cells, WBC, White blood cell analysis, Whole Blood Leukocyte Counts, WBC count, White blood cell count, WBC - White blood cell count, WCC - White blood cell count, White blood cell count (procedure), White blood cell count - observation
Italian Analisi leucocitaria, Conta leucocitaria NAS, Leucociti, Conta dei leucociti NAS, Numero dei leucociti, Conta dei globuli bianchi, Conta leucocitaria, Conta dei leucociti
Dutch WBC-telling, leukocytentelling NAO, witte cellen, witte bloedceltelling NAO, leukocytentelling, witte bloedceltelling, wittebloedcelanalyse, Bloedcellentelling, witte, Leucocytengetal, Leucocytentelling, Telling, leucocyten-
French NGB, Globules blancs, Globules blancs SAI, Numération des leucocytes SAI, Numération des globules blancs, Numération des leucocytes, Numération leucocytaire, Taux de leucocytes, Taux de globules blancs, Compte des leucocytes, Analyse des globules blancs
German Leukozytenzahl NNB, weisse Zellen, Leukozytenzahl, Leukozytenanalyse, weisses Blutbild, Blutbild, weißes, Leukozytenzählung, Weißes Blutbild
Portuguese Leucócitos, Número de leucócitos NE, Número de glóbulos brancos, Número de leucócitos, Análise dos leucócitos, Contagem dos glóbulos brancos, Contagem de Células Brancas do Sangue, Contagem de Leucócitos, Número de Leucócitos
Spanish Recuento de leucotitos NEOM, Leucocitos, Recuento leucocitario NEOM, recuento de glóbulos blancos, recuento de leucocitos (procedimiento), recuento de leucocitos, recuento leucocítico, Recuento de leucocitos, Análisis de leucocitos, Recuento de Leucocitos, Número de Leucocitos, Recuento de Células Blancas Sanguíneas, Recuento de Células Sanguíneas Blancas
Japanese 白血球, 白血球検査, WBC数, 白血球数NOS, ハッケッキュウスウ, ハッケッキュウスウNOS, ハッケッキュウ, WBCスウ, ハッケッキュウケンサ, 血球数算定-白血球, 白血球計算, 血球計数-白血球, 白血球数算定, 白血球数算定-分画, 白血球分画, 白血球数, 血球計算-白血球, 白血球計数
Swedish Leukocytantal
Czech krevní obraz bílý, leukocyty - počet, Počet leukocytů, Vyšetření bílého krevního obrazu, Bílé krvinky, Počet leukocytů NOS, Počet bílých krvinek
Finnish Valkosolumäärä
Russian LEIKOTSITOV PODSCHET, LEIKOTSITOV KOLICHESTVO, ЛЕЙКОЦИТОВ КОЛИЧЕСТВО, ЛЕЙКОЦИТОВ ПОДСЧЕТ
Polish Liczba leukocytów
Hungarian Fehér sejtek, Leukocita szám k.m.n., Fehérvérsejt szám k.m.n., Fvs. szám, Fehérvérsejt szám, Fehérvérsejt elemzés, Leukocitaszám
Norwegian Leukocytt-telling, Telling av hvite blodlegemer, Leukocyttelling, Leukocyttantall, Telling av hvite blodceller

Ontology: Leukocytes (C0023516)

Definition (MSHCZE) Bílá krvinka. Rozeznává se několik druhů, které se liší jak funkcí, tak místem vzniku a délkou života (neutrofily, eozinofily, bazofily, lymfocyty, monocyty). (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI) Blood cells that are devoid of hemoglobin, capable of ameboid motion and phagocytosis, and act as the principal components of the immune system.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A type of immune cell. Most leukocytes are made in the bone marrow and are found in the blood and lymph tissue. Leukocytes help the body fight infections and other diseases. Granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes are leukocytes.
Definition (MSH) White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Definition (CSP) white blood cell, specifically a colorless cell with a nucleus, found in blood and lymph; leukocytes are capable of amoeboid movement; they can produce antibodies and move through the walls of vessels to migrate to sites of injury, where they isolate and destroy dead tissue, foreign protein and bacteria.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D007962
SnomedCT 272170001, 52501007
HL7 WBC
LNC LP20670-3, LP7720-8, LP14419-3, LP157588-7, MTHU001946, LA12894-4
English WBC, Blood Cells, White, White Blood Cells, Blood Cell, White, leukocytes, Corpuscle, White Blood, White Blood Corpuscles, Blood Corpuscle, White, Corpuscles, White Blood, White Blood Corpuscle, Blood Corpuscles, White, WBC (white blood cell), white blood corpuscle, blood corpuscles white, blood white cell, blood white cells, leukocytic, blood leukocytes, bloods cells white, white blood cell (WBC), leucocytes, white blood cells, cell leukocyte, leucocyte, White blood cell (cell), leukocyte, white blood cell, Leukocyte, Leucocyte, WBC - White blood cell, White blood cell, White blood cells, Leukocyte (cell), Leukocyte, NOS, White blood cell, NOS, Leukocytes, Leucocytes, White Blood Cell, Reticuloendothelial System, Leukocytes, White Cell
Dutch witte bloedcellen, WBC, Bloedcel, witte, Bloedcellen, witte, Bloedlichaampje, wit, Leukocyt, Leukocyten, Witte bloedcellen
French Numération GB, Leucocytes, Globules blancs, Leucocyte, Globule blanc
German WBC, weisse Blutzellen, Leukozyten, Blutkörperchen, weiße, Blutzellen, weiße, Weiße Blutkörperchen, Weiße Blutzellen
Japanese WBC, WBC, ハッケッキュウ, 白血球
Swedish Vita blodkroppar
Czech leukocyty, Leukocyty, bílé krvinky
Portuguese Corpúsculos Sanguíneos Brancos, Corpúsculos Brancos do Sangue, Corpúsculos Brancos Sanguíneos, Células Brancas do Sangue, Células Sanguíneas Brancas, Leucócitos
Spanish Corpúsculos Sanguíneos Blancos, Corpúsculos Blancos Sanguíneos, Corpúsculos Blanco de la Sangre, glóbulo blanco, leucocito (célula), leucocito, Leucocitos, Células Blancas de la Sangre, Células Sanguíneas Blancas
Finnish Valkosolut
Russian LEIKOTSITY, ЛЕЙКОЦИТЫ
Italian Globuli bianchi, Corpuscoli bianchi del sangue, Leucociti
Croatian LEUKOCITI
Latvian Leikocīti, Asins ķermenīši, baltie, Baltās asins šūnas, Asins šūnas, baltās, Baltie asins ķermenīši
Polish Leukocyty, Krwinki białe
Hungarian Fvs., Fehérvérsejtek
Norwegian Hvite blodceller, Levkocytter, Leukocytter, Blodceller, hvite, Hvite blodlegemer

Ontology: Leukopenia (C0023530)

Definition (CHV) an abnormally low white blood cell count
Definition (CHV) an abnormally low white blood cell count
Definition (CHV) an abnormally low white blood cell count
Definition (CSP) reduction in the number of leukocytes in the blood, the count being 5000 per cubic millimeter or less.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D007970 , D009503
ICD9 288.50
ICD10 D72.819
SnomedCT 84828003, 142917003, 191348003
English Leukopenias, LEUCOPENIA, Leukocytopenia, Leukocytopenias, Leukocytopenia, unspecified, leukopenia (diagnosis), leukopenia, Leucopenia, NOS, Leukopenia, NOS, Leucocytopenia, Leukocytopenia NOS, Leukopenia [Disease/Finding], Leukopenia, leukocytopenia, leucopenia, Leukopenia NOS, Leucopenia (finding), Leucopenia (disorder), Disorder characterized by neutropenia, Leucopenia, Leukopenia (disorder)
French LEUCOPENIE, Leucopénie SAI, Leucopénie, Neutropénie, Leucocytopénie
Portuguese LEUCOPENIA, Leucopenia NE, Neutropenia, Leucocitopenia, Leucopenia
Spanish LEUCOPENIA, Leucopenia NEOM, leucopenia (trastorno), leucopenia, Leucopenia, Leucocitopenia
German LEUKOPENIE, Leukopenie NNB, Leukopenie, Leukozytopenie, Neutropenie
Dutch leukopenie NAO, leukocytopenie, leukopenie, Leukocytopenie, Leukopenie
Italian Leucopenia NAS, Leucocitopenia, Riduzione dei leucociti, Leucopenia, Neutropenia
Japanese 白血球減少症NOS, ハッケッキュウゲンショウショウ, ハッケッキュウゲンショウショウNOS, 白血球減少, 白血球減少症
Swedish Leukopeni
Czech neutropenie, leukopenie, Leukocytopenie, Leukopenie, Leukopenie NOS
Finnish Neutropenia, Leukosytopenia
Russian LEIKOPENIIA, NEITROPENIIA, ЛЕЙКОПЕНИЯ
Croatian LEUKOCITOPENIJA, NEUTROPENIJA, LEUKOPENIJA
Polish Leukopenia
Hungarian Leukocytopenia, Leucopenia, leukopenia k.m.n., Leucocytopenia, leukopenia
Norwegian Leukopeni, Leukocytopeni, Nøytropeni, Neutropeni