II. Definition

  1. Discrepancy between IQ and achievement
    1. No obvious underlying neurologic Impairment
  2. Difficult to diagnose before second grade

III. Epidemiology

  1. Affects 2-12% of school population
    1. Special education received by 10-12%
  2. Reading disorders are most common (8%)
  3. Boys affected 2-4 times more often than Girls

IV. Risk factors

  1. Prematurity
  2. Perinatal infections
  3. Prenatal exposure to drugs or Alcohol
  4. Postnatal lead exposure

V. Symptoms

  1. Delay in acquiring academic skills
  2. Dropping grades
  3. Excess time to complete work or learn new material
    1. Homework takes too long to complete
    2. Excess parental involvement
  4. Inconsistent performance
    1. Does better one-to-one
    2. Does better on homework than tests
  5. Behavior problems
    1. Disruptive behavior
    2. Homework refusal
    3. Class clown
    4. Hates school
    5. Frequent school absences
    6. Hides school work, lies about assignments

VI. Signs

  1. Subtle language difficulties
    1. Poor processing
    2. Poor phonological awareness
  2. Secondary inattention (up to 40%)
    1. Retention of information is poor
  3. Low self-esteem
  4. Depression
  5. Aggressive behaviors

VII. Differential Diagnosis

  1. Genetic Disorders
    1. Deletion at 22q11.2
    2. Klinefelter Syndrome
    3. Down Syndrome
    4. Fragile X
    5. Prader-Willi
    6. Angelman's Syndrome
    7. Rett Syndrome
  2. Acquired Disorder
    1. History of prematurity
    2. Congenital Hydrocephalus
    3. Traumatic Brain Injury
    4. Prior cerebral infection (e.g. Encephalitis)
    5. Lead Poisoning or Mercury Poisoning
  3. Mental Retardation
  4. Attentional Disorders (e.g. Attention Deficit Disorder)
  5. Language or developmental disorder
  6. Emotional disorder
    1. Anxiety
    2. Depression
    3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    4. Psychosis
  7. Visual Impairment or hearing Impairment
  8. Seizure Disorder
  9. Substance Abuse

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Ontology: Learning Disorders (C0023186)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Learning disorders affect how a person understands, remembers and responds to new information. People with learning disorders may have problems

  • Listening or paying attention
  • Speaking
  • Reading or writing
  • Doing math

Although learning disorders occur in very young children, they are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. About one-third of children who have learning disabilities also have ADHD, which makes it hard to focus.

Evaluation and testing by a trained professional can help identify a learning disorder. The next step is special education, which involves helping your child in the areas where he or she needs the most help. Sometimes tutors or speech or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Definition (NCI) A group of disorders that affect a person's ability to learn or process specific types of information which is in contrast to his/her apparent level of intellect.
Definition (MSH) Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
Definition (PSY) According to U.S. federal legislation, learning problems that are due to visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, mental retardation, emotional disturbance or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Compare LEARNING DISABILITIES.
Definition (CSP) conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills; may result from organic or psychological conditions.
Concepts Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction (T048)
MSH D007859
ICD10 F81.9
SnomedCT 1855002
DSM4 315.9
English Learning Disorders, LEARNING DISORDERS, Learning Disorder NOS, Learning disorder NOS, LEARNING DIS, academic skills disorder, Learning disorders, Learning Disorders [Disease/Finding], Disorder;learning, learning disorders, Learning Disorder, Learning differences, Learning disorder, Academic skill disorder, disorder; learning, learning; disorder, Academic skill disorder, NOS, Learning disorder, NOS, learning disorder, Disorder;academic skills
Italian Disturbo dell'apprendimento, Disturbo dell'apprendimento NAS, Disturbi dell'apprendimento
Dutch leerstoornis NAO, leervermogen; stoornis, stoornis; leervermogen, leerstoornissen, leerstoornis, Leerstoornis
French Trouble de l'apprentissage SAI, Trouble de l'apprentissage, Troubles de l'apprentissage, Troubles des apprentissages
German Lernstoerung NNB, Lernstoerungen, Lernstoerung, Lernstörungen
Portuguese Perturbação da aprendizagem NE, Transtornos de Aprendizado, Deficiências do Aprendizado, Perturbação da aprendizagem, Perturbações da aprendizagem, Transtornos de Aprendizagem
Spanish Trastorno del aprendizaje NEOM, trastorno del aprendizaje, Trastornos del aprendizaje, Trastorno del aprendizaje, Trastornos del Aprendizaje
Japanese 学習障害NOS, ガクシュウショウガイNOS, ガクシュウショウガイ, 学習障害
Swedish Inlärningsstörningar
Finnish Oppimishäiriöt
Russian ZNANII PRIOBRETENIIA SPOSOBNOSTI NARUSHENIIA, ЗНАНИЙ ПРИОБРЕТЕНИЯ СПОСОБНОСТИ НАРУШЕНИЯ
Czech Porucha učení, Poruchy učení, Porucha učení NOS, poruchy učení, obtíže s učením, potíže s učením, učení - poruchy
Croatian UČENJE, SMETNJE
Polish Zaburzenia uczenia się
Hungarian Tanulási zavar k.m.n., Tanulási betegségek, Tanulási zavar
Norwegian Læringsforstyrrelser