II. Causes: By Characteristics and Timing

  1. Isolated single beats improved with Exercise
    1. Premature Atrial Contractions
    2. Premature Ventricular Contractions
  2. Slow Heart Rate with Palpitations
    1. Atrioventricular Block
    2. Sinus node disease (e.g. Sick Sinus Syndrome)
  3. Rapid beats with sudden onset (Tachyarrhythmias)
    1. Sinus Tachycardia
    2. Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia (PSVT)
    3. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter
    4. Ventricular Tachycardia
  4. Intermittent episodes with gradual onset
    1. Caffeine (tea, coffee, soda, chocolate)
    2. Drugs of Abuse
      1. Cocaine
      2. Methamphetamine and other Amphetamines
    3. Herbals
      1. Ephedra
      2. Yohimbine
      3. Guarana
      4. Yerba mate
      5. Kola nut
      6. Bitter Orange
    4. Other medications
      1. Theophylline
      2. Beta Agonists
      3. Digitalis
    5. Carbon Monoxide toxicity
    6. Tobacco products
    7. Panic Attack
    8. Pheochromocytoma (rare)
    9. Mitral Valve Prolapse
  5. Persistant Palpitations at rest
    1. Anemia (worse with Exercise)
    2. Hyperthyroidism
    3. Hypertension
    4. Beriberi
    5. Fever
    6. Dehydration
    7. Anxiety Disorder
    8. Cardiomyopathy
    9. Pericarditis
    10. Valvular abnormality
      1. Aortic Regurgitation
      2. Mitral Regurgitation
      3. Large Ventricular Septal Defect

IV. Causes: Non-Cardiac

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