II. Precautions

  1. Serious adverse effects including death may occur
  2. FDA investigated 800 serious reactions in 1999 alone
    1. Serious reactions despite 75% were under age 50 years
    2. Life threatening reactions occurred at dose <5 mg/day

III. Contraindications

  1. Absolute
    1. Hypertension
    2. Diabetes Mellitus
    3. Concurrent MAO inhibitor use
    4. Heart disease
    5. Hyperthyroidism
    6. Psychiatric condition
    7. Glaucoma
    8. Prostatic hypertrophy
    9. Seizure disorder
  2. Relative
    1. Risks outweigh any benefits of Ephedrine
    2. Use at any dose in healthy patients may be unsafe

IV. Marketed Products containing Ephedrine

  1. Herbal Fen-Phen (Weight loss)
  2. Herbal Prozac (Depression)
  3. Herbal Ecstasy

V. Indications (Purported Uses)

  1. Respiratory conditions including Asthma
    1. Long history of use in China
    2. Used in United States since 1930s (e.g. Primatene)
  2. Herbal Stimulant for increased athletic performance
  3. Increased sexual sensation or heightened awareness
  4. Weight loss

VI. Mechanism

VII. Adverse effects (Sympathomimetic effects)

  1. Insomnia
  2. Headache
  3. Nervousness
  4. Tremor or other motor disturbance
  5. Hypertension
  6. Glaucoma
  7. Hyperglycemia
  8. Nephrolithiasis
  9. Cardiac arrhythmia
  10. Myocardial Infarction
  11. Hypersensitivity Myocarditis
  12. Seizure
  13. Cerebrovascular Accident
  14. Predisposes to Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke

VIII. Drug Interactions

  1. Caffeine
  2. Decongestants (e.g. Pseudoephedrine or Sudafed)
  3. Stimulants
  4. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, combined effects:
    1. Hypertension
    2. Coma
    3. Hyperpyrexia

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Ontology: Ephedrine (C0014479)

Definition (CHV) a drug treats asthma and allergy
Definition (CHV) a drug treats asthma and allergy
Definition (CHV) a drug treats asthma and allergy
Definition (CSP) alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine; has been used in the treatment of several disorders including asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression.
Definition (MSH) A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D004809
SnomedCT 387358007, 65026000
LNC LP16128-8, MTHU016065
English Ephedrine, [R-(R*,S*)]-alpha-[1-(Methylamino)ethyl]benzenemethanol, (-)-Ephedrine, Erythro Isomer of Ephedrine, (1R,2S)-2-methylamino-1-phenyl-propan-1-ol, Ephedrine Erythro Isomer, ephedrine (medication), Ephedrine [Chemical/Ingredient], ephedrine products, ephedrines, ePHEDrine, EPHEDrine, EPHEDRINE, ephedrine, Ephedrine (product), Ephedrine (substance)
Swedish Efedrin
Czech efedrin
Finnish Efedriini
Italian Eritro isomero dell'efedrina, Efedrina
Russian EFEDRIN, ЭФЕДРИН
Croatian EFEDRIN
Polish Efedryna
Japanese エフェドリン
Spanish efedrina (producto), efedrina (sustancia), efedrina, Efedrina
French Éphédrine
German Ephedrin
Portuguese Efedrina

Ontology: Ephedra (C0950030)

Definition (MSH) A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
Concepts Plant (T002)
MSH D029789
Swedish Ephedra
English Ephedra, Ephedras, ephedra, ephedra plant, ephedras, ma huang, joint firs, Mormon-tea
Czech chvojník, Ephedra
Finnish Ephedra
Russian EFEDRA, KHVOINIK, ХВОЙНИК, ЭФЕДРА
French Éphèdre, Ephedra
Polish Przęśl dwukłosowa, Przęśl, Przęśl sprzypowata
Norwegian Efedra, Ephedra
Spanish Belcho, Ephedra
Portuguese Chá-do-Deserto, Chá-Mórmon, Éfedra, Ephedra
German Ephedra
Italian Ephedra
Dutch Ephedra