II. Causes: Sympathomimetics (alpha adrenergic agonists)

III. Causes: Anticholinergics

  1. Atropine
  2. Scopolamine
  3. Benztropine mesylate
  4. Antihistamines

IV. Causes: Neurologic and psychiatric agents

VI. Causes: Phenothiazines

  1. Prochlorperazine
  2. Chlorpromazine hydrochloride
  3. Promethazine hydrochloride

VII. Causes: Recreational and Illicit Drugs

  1. Alcohol
  2. Lysergic Acid diethylamide (LSD)
  3. Phencyclidine (PCP)
  4. Methamphetamine
  5. Ephedra-containing supplements
  6. Cocaine
  7. Bath Salts
  8. Ecstacy
  9. Jimson Weed
  10. Hallucinogenic Mushrooms

VIII. Causes: Other Medications

  1. Laxatives
  2. Thyroid receptor agonists
  3. Salicylates

IX. References

  1. Salinas and Ruttan (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(9): 3-10

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