II. Causes: Headaches related to medication or substance use

  1. Chemicals
    1. Alcohol
    2. Cocaine
  2. Foods
    1. Monosodium glutamate
    2. Tyramine-Vasoactive Amines
    3. Sodium Nitrite
      1. Processed meats and fish
      2. Food coloring
      3. Preservatives
  3. Anti-infective agents
    1. Amphotericin B
    2. Azithromycin
    3. Fluconazole
    4. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Septra, Bactrim)
    5. Zidovudine
  4. Cardiovascular agents
    1. Calcium Channel Blockers (Nifedipine, Verapamil)
    2. Reserpine
    3. Methyldopa
    4. Nitroglycerin
    5. Dipyridamole (Persantine)
    6. Quinidine
    7. Digoxin
  5. Gastrointestinal Agents
    1. Ondansetron (Zofran)
    2. Ranitidine (Zantac)
    3. Cimetidine (Tagamet)
  6. Analgesics and Anti-Inflammatory agents
    1. Propoxyphene
    2. Pentazocine
    3. Corticosteroids
    4. NSAIDs (associated with Rebound Headache)
      1. Diclofenac (Voltaren)
      2. Indomethacin (Indocin)
  7. Pulmonary Agents
    1. Aminophylline
    2. Theophylline
    3. Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
  8. Endocrine Agents
    1. Danazol
    2. Oral Contraceptive
  9. CNS Agents
    1. Levodopa
    2. Amantadine
    3. Benzodiazepines
    4. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

III. Causes: Headaches related to medication or Substance Withdrawal

  1. Chemicals
    1. Alcohol Withdrawal
    2. Barbiturate withdrawal
    3. Caffeine withdrawal
    4. Narcotic Withdrawal
  2. Miscellaneous Agents
    1. Ergotamine withdrawal

IV. References

  1. Goldman (2000) Cecil Medicine, Saunders, p. 2066
  2. Edmeads (1997) Postgrad Med 101(5):91-100 [PubMed]

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window