II. Physiology: Erythropoiesis (mature red cell development)

  1. See Bone Marrow (Erythroblast)
  2. Development in Marrow
    1. Proerythroblast is RBC stem cell in marrow (0.5 days)
    2. Basophilic Erythroblast (0.8 days)
      1. Nucleus shrinks, cytoplasm darkens with ribosomes
    3. Polychromatophilic erythroblast (1.3 days)
      1. Cell produces Hemoglobin
      2. Stains with basic and eosin stains
    4. Orthochromatic erythroblast (2.0 days)
      1. Cell appears more Eosinophilic
  3. Reticulocyte: Transition to Circulation
    1. Orthochromatic erythroblast sheds nucleus
    2. Marrow Reticulocyte spends 1.7 days in marrow
    3. Blood Reticulocyte spends 1.3 days in circulation
  4. Red Blood Cells in Circulation
    1. Mature Red Blood Cell (120 day life-span)

III. Findings: Normal Values (in 10^6/ul or 10^12/L) per age

  1. Age <1 month: 3.6 to 6.6
  2. Age 1-6 months: 2.7 to 5.4
  3. Age 0.5 - 6 years: 3.7 to 5.3
  4. Age 6-12 years: 4.0 to 5.2
  5. Female
    1. Age 12-18 years: 4.1 to 5.1
    2. Age >18 years: 3.8 to 5.2
  6. Male
    1. Age 12-18 years: 4.5 to 5.3
    2. Age >18 years: 4.4 to 5.9

IV. Findings: Increased Red Blood Cell Count

  1. Polycythemia Vera
  2. Tobacco Abuse
  3. High altitude
  4. Renal Cell Carcinoma
  5. Cardiovascular disease
  6. Stress
  7. Dehydration
  8. Thalassemia Trait

V. Findings: Decreased Red Blood Cell Count

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Ontology: Erythrocytes (C0014792)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A cell that carries oxygen to all parts of the body.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Cell specialized for oxygen transport, having a high concentration of hemoglobin in the cytoplasm and little else; biconcave, anucleate discs, 7nm diameter in mammals.
Definition (NCI) Cell specialized for oxygen transport, having a high concentration of hemoglobin in the cytoplasm and little else; biconcave, anucleate discs, 7nm diameter in mammals.
Definition (MSH) Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Definition (CSP) red blood cells; mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing hemoglobin whose function is to transport oxygen.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D004912
SnomedCT 41898006, 256376002
HL7 RBC
LNC LP16699-8, LP14304-7, LP7536-8, MTHU001098, LA12896-9
English Blood Cells, Red, Red Blood Cells, Blood Cell, Red, Red Blood Cell, Red blood cells, Red cells, Blood Corpuscle, Red, Red Blood Corpuscle, Red Blood Corpuscles, Corpuscle, Red Blood, Blood Corpuscles, Red, Corpuscles, Red Blood, Anucleate erythrocyte, Red blood corpuscle, bloods cells red, erythrocytic, blood corpuscles red, rbcs, blood corpuscle, blood erythrocytes, blood cells rbc red, cells red blood, red blood corpuscle, red blood cell, red blood cells, erythrocytes, Red blood cell (cell), ERYTHROCYTES, RBCs, erythrocyte, Erythrocytic Cells, Erythrocyte, RBC, Red blood cell, Red blood corpuscule, RBC - Red blood cell, Erythrocyte (cell), Erythrocytes, Erythrocyte, NOS, Red Cell, Reticuloendothelial System, Erythrocytes
French Globule rouge, Érythrocyte, Globules rouges, Hématies, Hématie, Érythrocytes
Swedish Röda blodkroppar
Spanish glóbulos rojos, glóbulo rojo sanguíneo, Corpúsculos Sanguíneos Rojos, hematíes, Corpúsculos Rojos Sanguíneos, Hematíes, Corpúsculos Rojos de la Sangre, GR, eritrocito (célula), eritrocito, glóbulo rojo, Eritrocitos, Glóbulos Rojos
Czech erytrocyty
Portuguese Corpúsculos Sanguíneos Vermelhos, Corpúsculos Vermelhos Sanguíneos, Corpúsculos Vermelhos do Sangue, Hemácias, Eritrócitos, Glóbulos Vermelhos
Finnish Punasolut
Italian Globuli rossi, Eritrociti
Russian ERITROTSITY, KRASNYE KROVIANYE TEL'TSA, КРАСНЫЕ КРОВЯНЫЕ ТЕЛЬЦА, ЭРИТРОЦИТЫ
Japanese 赤血球
Croatian ERITROCITI
Latvian Eritrocīti, Sarkanie asins ķermenīši, Asins ķermenīši, sarkanie, Sarkanās asins šūnas, Asins šūnas, sarkanās
Polish Erytrocyty, Krwinki czerwone
Norwegian Blodceller, røde, Røde blodceller, Røde blodlegemer, Erytrocytter, Germ Cells, Plant
German Erythrozyten, Blutkörperchen, rote, Rote Blutkörperchen
Dutch Bloedcellen, rode, Erythrocyt, Erythrocyten, Rode bloedcellen

Ontology: Erythropoiesis (C0014819)

Definition (GO) The process in which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of an erythrocyte. [GOC:mah]
Definition (NCI) A biological process that refers to the maturation of erythrocytes.
Definition (NCI) A hematopoietic process that refers to the production of erythrocytes.
Definition (CSP) production of red blood cells.
Definition (MSH) The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Concepts Organ or Tissue Function (T042)
MSH D004920
SnomedCT 69611006
English Erythropoieses, Erythropoiesis, erythrocyte cell differentiation, erythrocyte differentiation, Erythrocyte production, function, red blood cell differentiation, RBC differentiation, erythropoieses, erythrocyte production, erythropoiesis, Erythrocyte Differentiation, Erythrocyte production, Erythrocyte production, function (observable entity), Erythrocyte production, NOS, Erythropoiesis, NOS, Erythrocyte production (function)
Swedish Erytropoes
Czech erytropoéza
Finnish Erytropoieesi
Russian ERITROPOEZ, ЭРИТРОПОЭЗ
Croatian ERITROPOEZA
Polish Erytropoeza
Norwegian Erytropoiese
Portuguese Eritropoiese, Eritropoese
Spanish eritropoyesis, erotrocitopoyesis, producción de corpúsculos rojos, producción de eritrocitos (entidad observable), producción de eritrocitos (función), producción de eritrocitos, producción de glóbulos rojos maduros, Eritropoyesis
French Érythropoïèse
German Erythropoese, Erythrozytenbildung
Italian Eritropoiesi
Dutch Erytropoëse

Ontology: Reticulocytes (C0035286)

Definition (MSHCZE) Předposlední, již bezjaderné vývojové stadium červené krvinky, po němž už následuje zralý erytrocyt. Vzniká z erytroblastu vypuzením buněčného jádra v kostní dřeni a za několik dnů dozrává v periferní krvi. Obsahuje zbytky organel. Množství r. v periferní krvi (vyjádřeno relativně v procentech všech červených krvinek, norm. cca 1 %) odráží erytropoetickou aktivitu dřeně. Je zvýšeno při její aktivaci (viz retikulocytóza) a sníženo při dřeňových útlumech. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI) Immature erythrocytes that have just undergone extrusion of their cell nucleus. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature.
Definition (MSH) Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Definition (CSP) immature erythrocytes showing a basophilic reticulum under vital staining; in humans, these are erythroid cells that have just undergone extrusion of their cell nucleus.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D012156
SnomedCT 52802009
LNC LP16487-8, MTHU004708
English Polychromatophilic Erythrocyte, Reticulocytes, reticulocytes, cells reticulocytes, reticulocyte, Reticulocyte, Diffusely basophilic erythrocyte, Polychromatophilic erythrocyte, Reticulocyte (cell)
French Réticulocyte, Réticulocytes
Swedish Retikulocyter
Czech retikulocyty
Finnish Retikulosyytit
Russian RETIKULOTSITY, РЕТИКУЛОЦИТЫ
Croatian RETIKULOCITI
Latvian Retikulocīti
Polish Retikulocyty, Komórki siateczki
Norwegian Retikulocytter
Spanish eritrocito difusamente basófilo, eritrocito policromatófilo, reticulocito (célula), reticulocito, Reticulocitos
German Retikulozyten
Italian Reticolociti
Dutch Reticulocyt, Reticulocyten
Portuguese Reticulócitos

Ontology: Proerythroblasts (C0242277)

Definition (NCI) The earliest of four stages in development of the normoblast.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D004900
SnomedCT 16671004
LNC LP15085-1, MTHU002434
English RBC -Pro-erythroblasts present, Proerythroblasts, proerythroblast, rubriblast, pronormoblast, Pronormoblasts, Pronormoblast, Proerythroblast, Rubriblast, Pro-erythroblast, RBC - Pro-erythroblasts present, Pronormoblast (cell)
French Pro-érythroblastes, Proérythroblastes
Portuguese Proeritroblastos
Spanish Proeritroblastos, pro-eritroblasto presente, pro-eritroblasto, proeritroblasto, pronormoblasto (célula), pronormoblasto, rubriblasto
German Proerythroblasten
Italian Proeritroblasti
Norwegian Proerytroblaster
Dutch Pro-erytroblast, Pronormoblast