II. Causes: Common

  1. Acute Limp
    1. Transient Synovitis (most common)
    2. Contusion
    3. Foot foreign body
    4. Fracture
    5. Osteomyelitis
    6. Septic Arthritis
    7. Reactive Arthritis
    8. Lyme Arthritis
    9. Poor shoe wear
  2. Chronic Limp
    1. Rheumatic disease (e.g. Dermatomyositis, Rheumatic Fever, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, SLE, Juvenile RA)
    2. Apophysitis (e.g. Osgood-Schlatter Disease, Sever's Disease) and other overuse syndromes
    3. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (esp. boys at 14 to 16 years old)
    4. Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (esp. boys at ages 4 to 9 years old)
  3. References
    1. Fischer (1999) J Bone Joint Surg Br 81(6): 1029-34 [PubMed]

III. Causes: LIMPSS Mnemonic

  1. Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis)
    1. Especially in males, 4-9 years old with Hip Pain and reduced range of motion (84% unilateral)
  2. Infection or Inflammation
    1. Examples: Cellulitis, Osteomyelitis, Septic Hip, Transient Synovitis
  3. Malignancy
    1. Examples: Ewing's Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma represent 90% of bone cancers in children; Also ALL
  4. Pain from Trauma
    1. Consider Toddler's Fracture, non-accidental Trauma
  5. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)
    1. Especially Overweight, black or hispanic boys (14-16 yo) more than girls (11-13 yo) with Hip Pain (90% unilateral)
  6. Somewhere Else (referred pain)
    1. Examples: Appendicitis or psoas abscess, Discitis
    2. Girls: UTI, Ectopic Pregnancy, Ovarian Torsion, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  7. References
    1. Jhun and Raam in Herbert (2016) EM:Rap 16(2):15-6

IV. Causes: Age 1-5 years

  1. See Common causes for all ages as above
  2. Acute
    1. Hip and Leg
      1. Toxic or Transient Synovitis (most common)
      2. Toddler's Fracture
      3. Tibial Stress Fracture
      4. Septic Hip
      5. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (esp. Polyarthritis at ankles and knees)
    2. Foot
      1. Hand Foot and Mouth Disease
    3. Systemic
      1. Non-Accidental Trauma in Children (Child Abuse)
      2. Salter Fracture Type 1
      3. Immunizations (local reaction may cause limp due to affected injected leg)
  3. Chronic
    1. Hip
      1. Congenital Hip Dysplasia (most common, esp girls)
    2. Foot
      1. Clubfoot
      2. Kohler Bone Disease
      3. Vertical talus
    3. Spine
      1. Diskitis
    4. Systemic
      1. Cerebral Palsy
      2. Leg-length discrepancy
      3. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (or Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis)

V. Causes: Age 5-12 years

VI. Causes: Ages 11-19 years

  1. See Common causes for all ages as above
  2. Acute
    1. Soft Tissue Injury (Ligament Sprain, Tendon Strain)
    2. Tendinopathy
    3. Overuse syndrome
  3. Chronic
    1. Hip
      1. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (most common, esp. boys)
      2. Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (esp. boys)
    2. Knee
      1. Osgood-Sclatter Disease or Chondromalacia petellae
      2. Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee
      3. Discoid meniscus
    3. Foot
      1. Tarsal Coalition
    4. Spine
      1. Spinal Dysraphism with tethered cord
      2. Spondylolisthesis
      3. Lumbar Disc Herniation
      4. Scoliosis
    5. Systemic Arthritis
      1. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (or Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis)
      2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
      3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    6. Miscellaneous
      1. Tumor
      2. Hypermobility syndrome

VII. Causes: Hematology and Oncology

  1. Sickle Cell Anemia (causes osteonecrosis)
  2. Benign Neoplasm
    1. Osteoblastoma
    2. Osteoid Osteoma
  3. Malignant Neoplasm
    1. Ewing Sarcoma
    2. Leukemia
    3. Osteosarcoma
    4. Spinal cord tumor

VIII. Causes: Congenital and Developmental Disorders

  1. Congenital deformity
    1. Clubfoot
    2. Short femur or other Limb Length Discrepancy
    3. Congenital Hip Dysplasia
    4. Discoid lateral meniscus
  2. Developmental bone disorder
    1. Legg Disease
    2. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
  3. Neuromuscular disorders
    1. Cerebral Palsy
      1. Developmental Delay
      2. Spasticity or hypertonia
      3. Asymmetric motor activity or Deep Tendon Reflexes
    2. Muscular Dystrophy
    3. Spinal Dysraphism (e.g. Myelomeningocele)

IX. Causes: Infection

  1. Osteomyelitis
  2. Septic Arthritis
  3. Lyme Disease
  4. Meningitis (especially Meningococcus)
  5. Soft tissue abscess or Cellulitis
  6. Pyomyositis
  7. Diskitis or Vertebral Osteomyelitis

X. Causes: Musculoskeletal

  1. Fracture, Trauma or overuse
    1. Osteochondritis Dissecans (overuse injury)
    2. Fracture or Stress Fracture (consider Child Abuse)
    3. Intra-articular injury or Hemarthrosis (may also be caused by Hemophilia)
    4. Patellofemoral Syndrome (Chondromalacia Patellae)
    5. Osgood-Schlatter Disease
    6. Sever Disease
    7. Soft tissue foreign body (e.g. foot)
  2. Rheumatologic conditions
    1. Acute Rheumatic Fever
    2. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
    3. Reactive Arthritis
    4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    5. Transient Synovitis

XI. Causes: Referred intra-Abdominal Pain

  1. Appendicitis or other psoas abscess
  2. Neuroblastoma

XII. Causes: Miscellaneous

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