II. Anatomy: Bones

  1. General
    1. Total: 26 bones
    2. Lateral and longitudinal arches: 12 bones
  2. Hindfoot
    1. Talus
    2. Calcaneus
  3. Midfoot (separated from hindfoot by Chopart Joint)
    1. Navicular
    2. Cuboid
    3. Cuneiforms (medial, intermediate, lateral)
  4. Forefoot (separated from midfoot by Lisfranc Joint)
    1. Phalanges
    2. Metatarsal Bones
  5. Images
    1. orthoAnteriorBoneFoot.jpgAlso available as a Poster size image. See printing instructions and image restrictions.
    2. orthoPosteriorBoneFoot.jpgAlso available as a Poster size image. See printing instructions and image restrictions.
    3. FootAnatomyAnterior.jpg
    4. orthoLegFootDorsalGrayBB268.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    5. orthoLegFootPlantarGrayBB269.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    6. orthoLegFootMedialGrayBB290.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    7. orthoLegFootLateralGrayBB291.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

III. Anatomy: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons

  1. Extrinsic muscles
    1. Tibialis anterior muscle
    2. Extensor digitorum longus muscle
    3. Extensor hallucis longus muscle
    4. Tibialis posterior muscle
    5. Flexor digitorum longus muscle
    6. Flexor hallucis longus muscle
    7. Gastrocnemius muscle
    8. Soleus muscle
  2. Intrinsic Muscles
    1. orthoLegFootMusclesFlexorsGrayBB443.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. orthoLegFootPlantarHallucisBrevisGrayBB445.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    3. orthoFootDorsumInterosseiGrayBB446.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    4. orthoFootPlantarLtInterosseiGrayBB447.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  3. Ligaments
    1. orthoLegFootMedialLigamentsGrayBB354.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. orthoLegFootLateralLigamentsGrayBB355.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    3. orthoLegFootLigamentsXsGrayBB360.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  4. Tendons
    1. orthoLegFootTendonsFlexorsLongGrayBB444.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

IV. Anatomy: Nerves

  1. See Foot Neurologic Anatomy
  2. Tibial nerve
  3. Superficial fibular nerve
  4. Deep fibular nerve (peroneal nerve)
  5. Saphenous nerve
  6. Sural nerve

V. Anatomy: Vascular supply

  1. Dorsal foot
    1. Anterior tibial artery
    2. Dorsalis pedis artery
  2. Plantar foot
    1. Posterior tibial artery
    2. Peroneal artery

VI. Anatomy: Fascial support (maintains arches)

VII. Physiology: Function and Range of motion (3 planes)

  1. Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion
  2. Eversion and Inversion
    1. Hindfoot
    2. Subtalar joint
  3. Abduction and Adduction
    1. Midfoot
    2. Midtarsal joint
  4. Combinations
    1. Supination (plantar flexion, inversion, adduction)
    2. Supination (dorsiflexion, eversion, abduction)
  5. Images
    1. FootAnatomyJoints.jpg
    2. AnkleAnatomySubtalarFunction.jpg

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Ontology: Foot Injuries and Disorders (C1456869)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Each of your feet has 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 tendons, muscles, and ligaments. No wonder a lot of things can go wrong. Here are a few common problems:

  • Bunions - hard, painful bumps on the big toe joint
  • Calluses and corns - thickened skin from friction or pressure
  • Plantar warts - warts on the soles of your feet
  • Fallen arches - also called flat feet

Ill-fitting shoes often cause these problems. Aging and being overweight also increase your chances of having foot problems.

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
English Foot Injuries and Disorders