II. Indications

  1. Medications causing tissue necrosis on extravasation or otherwise harmful via peripheral IV
  2. Large volume infusion required
  3. Unobtainable or unreliable Intravenous Access

III. Preparation

  1. Perform under dynamic Ultrasound guidance
    1. Confirms vessel location and patency
    2. Real-time confirmation of vessel cannulation
    3. Decreases the number of access attempts
    4. Decreases the time to central vein catheterization
    5. Decreases central access complication rate
  2. Perform under sterile conditions to reduce infectious complications
    1. Mask, cap, sterile gown and sterile gloves
    2. Large sterile drape
    3. Antimicrobial Dressing at catheter insertion site
    4. Sterile transducer sleeve around Ultrasound probe and cord

IV. Complications: Site specific risks (may direct site selection)

  1. Internal Jugular Central Line
    1. Venous thrombus (>2 fold increased risk over subclavian Central Line)
      1. Timsit (1998) Chest 114: 207-13 [PubMed]
      2. Parienti (2015) N Engl J Med 373(13):1220-9 [PubMed]
  2. External Jugular Central Line
    1. Failed placement
    2. Pneumothorax
  3. Subclavian Central Line
    1. Pneumothorax
    2. Noncompressible (uncontrolled bleeding risk)
  4. Femoral Central Line
    1. Deep Vein Thrombosis
    2. Infection risk
    3. Preferred site in children (lower risk than IJ)
    4. In 2015 study, femoral lines had similar risks to internal jugular: infection rate (1.2%), thrombus rate (1.4%)
      1. Femoral also had the lowest failed placement rate (5%) compared with 9% IJ and 15% subclavian
      2. Parienti (2015) N Engl J Med 373(13):1220-9 [PubMed]

V. Approach: Site Selection in stabilized patients

  1. Precaution
    1. Site selection should avoid sites with overlying infection, altered anatomy, Trauma or distortion
  2. General patient without other risk factors
    1. Internal Jugular Central Line is preferred (lowest risk site)
    2. Avoid femoral Central Line overall (aside from codes) due to the highest rate of complications (DVT, infection)
    3. Consider alternatives to central access
      1. Ultrasound-Guided Antecubital Line
      2. PICC Line
  3. Morbidly obese
    1. Subclavian Central Line is preferred
    2. Internal Jugular Vein landmarks are typically difficult to localize in the morbidly obese
    3. Avoid femoral vein Central Line due to infection risk
  4. Pneumothorax or Hypoxemia
    1. Internal Jugular Central Line is preferred
    2. Avoid subclavian Central Line (unless on same side as the Pneumothorax)
  5. Coagulopathy (increased bleeding risk such as Hemophilia, Thrombocytopenia)
    1. Internal Jugular Central Line is preferred
    2. Avoid subclavian Central Line as it is a noncompressible site
  6. Hypercoagulable state (increased thrombosis risk)
    1. Subclavian Central Line is preferred
    2. Avoid Internal Jugular Central Line (highest risk site for DVT)

VI. Approach: Site Selection by circumstance

  1. Crashing patient (Code, CPR) or Trauma patient (c-Spine Immobilization)
    1. Intraosseous Access
    2. Femoral Line
      1. Replace with supraclavicular line (IJ, EJ, Subclavian) when stabilized
  2. Children
    1. Femoral line (if intraosseous fails)
  3. Central Venous Pressure monitoring or Sepsis catheter
    1. Supraclavicular line (IJ, EJ, Subclavian)

VII. Approach: Pediatric Patients

  1. Central catheter sizes in children
    1. Infant: 3 French (24 gauge)
    2. Toddler/Preschool: 4 French (20 gauge)
    3. School age: 5 French (18 gauge)
  2. Catheter placement pearls
    1. Sedation allows for procedure (e.g. Ketamine 4 mg/kg IM)
    2. May use introducer (catheter over needle only) for initial Resuscitation
      1. May later, use guidewire through introducer catheter to place standard Central Line
  3. References
    1. Claudius, Behar, Chang and Santillanes in Herbert (2016) EM:Rap 16(4): 3-4

VIII. Preparations: Devices

  1. Triple lumen catheter (typical Central Line)
    1. cvTripleLumenCatheter.png
  2. Double lumen catheter
  3. Hemodialysis catheter
  4. Cordis catheter
    1. Indicated for Hemodialysis or critically ill patients requiring advanced hemodynamic monitoring

IX. Adverse Effects

  1. Catheter Related Bloodstream Infections (CRBI)
    1. See Catheter Related Bloodstream Infections (CRBI)
  2. Collateral injury to surrounding structures
    1. Pneumothorax (IJ, EJ, Subclavian Line)
    2. Bladder or retroperitoneal injury (Femoral line)
  3. Immobilization-related effects
    1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (especially femoral line)

X. Resources

  1. Internal Jugular Vein cannulation video (ACEP Critical Decisions Video)
    1. http://www.acep.org/cdem_2014_lesson_10-1/
  2. Subclavian vein cannulation from a supraclavicular approach video (ACEP Critical Decisions Video)
    1. http://www.acep.org/cdem_2014_lesson_10-2/
  3. Subclavian vein cannulation from an infraclavicular approach video (ACEP Critical Decisions Video)
    1. http://www.acep.org/cdem_2014_lesson_10-3/
  4. Femoral vein cannulation video (ACEP Critical Decisions Video)
    1. http://www.acep.org/cdem_2014_lesson_10-4/

XI. References

  1. Jacquet and Hong (2014) Crit Dec Emerg Med 28(5): 15-22
  2. Swaminathan and Herbert in Majoewsky (2013) EM:Rap 13(9): 6

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window

Ontology: Catheterization, Central Venous (C0007435)

Definition (MSH) Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
MSH D002405
ICD10 13815-00
English Catheterization, Central, Catheterization, Central Venous, Catheterizations, Central, Catheterizations, Central Venous, Central Catheterization, Central Catheterizations, Central Venous Catheterization, Central Venous Catheterizations, Venous Catheterization, Central, Venous Catheterizations, Central, CENTRAL VENOUS CATH, CATH CENTRAL, CATH CENTRAL VENOUS, VENOUS CATH CENTRAL, CENTRAL CATH, Central vein catheterisation, Central vein catheterization, venous catheterization central, central catheterization, central venous catheterisation, central venous catheterization, catheterization central venous, Central venous catheterisation, Central venous catheterization
German zentralvenoese Katheterisierung, Zentralvenenkatheter, Katheterisierung, zentralvenöse, Venöse Katheterisierung, Zentral-, Zentralvenöse Katheterisierung
Portuguese Cateterismo venoso central, Cateterização venosa central, Cateterismo Venoso Central
Japanese 中心静脈カテーテル留置, チュウシンジョウミャクカテーテルリュウチ, 中心静脈カテーテル法, カテーテル-中心静脈, 中心静脈カテーテル, カテーテル法-中心静脈, 静脈カテーテル-中心, 静脈カテーテル法-中心
Swedish Kateterisering, centralvenös
Czech katetrizace centrálních vén, Zavedení CŽK, Zavedení centrálního žilního katétru, Central Venous Access, CVA (Central Venous Access)
Finnish Keskuslaskimokatetrisaatio
Italian Cateterismo centrale, Cateterismo venoso centrale
Russian TSENTRAL'NAIA VENOZNAIA KATETERIZATSIIA, KATETERIZATSIIA TSENTRAL'NAIA VENOZNAIA, КАТЕТЕРИЗАЦИЯ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНАЯ ВЕНОЗНАЯ, ЦЕНТРАЛЬНАЯ ВЕНОЗНАЯ КАТЕТЕРИЗАЦИЯ
Croatian KATETERIZACIJA, CENTRALNA VENSKA
Polish Wprowadzenie centralnego cewnika, Cewnikowanie żył centralnych, Centralny dostęp żylny, Wkłucie centralne, Cewnikowanie żyły centralnej
Hungarian Centralis vena katéterezés
Norwegian Kateterisering, sentralvenøs, Venøs kateterisering, Sentralvenøs kateterisering
French Cathétérisme central, Cathétérisation veineuse centrale, Cathétérisme veineux central
Spanish Cateterización venosa central, Cateterismo Venoso Central
Dutch centraal veneuze katheterisatie, Centraal-veneuze katherisatie, Katherisatie, centraal-veneuze, Veneuze katherisatie, centraal

Ontology: Central line management (C0854640)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
LNC LA9943-7
English Central line management, Central Line Management, management of central line
Czech Péče o centrální žilní katétr
Dutch centrale lijnmanagement
French Surveillance d'un cathéter central
German Management des Zentralzugangs
Hungarian Centralis véna kezelés
Italian Trattamento della linea centrale
Japanese チュウシンジョウミャクカテーテルカンリ, 中心静脈カテーテル管理
Spanish Tratamiento por vía central
Portuguese Gestão da linha central

Ontology: Central line placement (C0919865)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
Dutch plaatsing centrale lijn
French Mise en place d'un cathéter central
German Anlage eines Zentralzugangs
Italian Posizionamento della linea centrale
Portuguese Colocação de via central
Spanish Colocación de una vía central
Japanese 中心静脈カテーテル留置, チュウシンジョウミャクカテーテルリュウチ
Czech Zavedení centrálního žilního katétru
English central line placement, Central line placement
Hungarian Centralis véna biztosítás