II. Pathophysiology

  1. Venom gland at spine (base of tail)
  2. Spine and/or venom gland may embed in wound site

III. Symptoms

  1. Intense pain onset at time of sting
  2. Nausea or Vomiting
  3. Diarrhea
  4. Muscle cramps
  5. Salivation
  6. Dyspnea
  7. Headaches
  8. Arrhythmias

IV. Radiology

  1. Consider for determining forign body

V. Management

  1. Rinse wound site with water
  2. Remove embedded foreign bodies
    1. Do not remove spines embedded near vital organs
  3. Control bleeding
  4. Apply heat to area
    1. Heat inactivates toxin
    2. Submerse affected hand or foot in 108 to 113 mmHg for up to 2 hours
  5. Observe for signs of Wound Infection
  6. Antibiotics not indicated unless infection
  7. Update Tetanus Vaccine

VI. Prevention

  1. Shuffle feet while walking through shallow waters

VII. References

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Ontology: Family Dasyatidae - stingray (C0327722)

Concepts Fish (T013)
SnomedCT 107320007
English stingray, stingrays, Dasyatidae, Trygonidae, Family Dasyatidae - stingray, Family Dasyatidae - stingray (organism), Family dasyatidae - stingray (organism), Family dasyatidae - stingray, Stingray
Spanish familia dasyatidae - raya con púa, familia Dasyatidae - raya con púa, familia Dasyatidae - raya con púa (organismo), raya vaca, familia dasyatidae - raya con púa (organismo)