II. Pathophysiology

  1. Blood components responsible for Cyanosis
    1. Deoxygenated Hemoglobin > 5 g/dl or
    2. Methemoglobin >1.5 g/dl or
    3. Sulfhemoglobin >0.5 g/dl

III. Precautions

  1. Cyanosis appears when at least 5 g/dl of Hemoglobin is deoxygenated (desaturated)
    1. Anemic patients (e.g. Hemoblobin <10 g/dl) may not appear cyanotic despite Hypoxia
    2. Polycythemic patients (e.g. Hemoblobin >17-20 g/dl) such as those with COPD, Pulmonary Hypertension may appear cyanotic in mild Hypoxia

IV. Signs

  1. Blue coloration to skin and mucous membranes

V. Causes: Central Cyanosis (Cyanosis of the trunk and head)

VI. Causes: Peripheral Cyanosis (local Cyanosis or extremity Cyanosis)

  1. Early in course of Central Cyanosis causes (that will progress to Central Cyanosis without intervention)
  2. Hypovolemia
  3. Cold extremities
  4. Raynaud Syndrome
  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease
  6. Deep Vein Thrombosis
  7. Venous Stasis

VII. Differential Diagnosis

VIII. References

  1. Degowin (1987) Diagnostic Examination, p. 335-6

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Ontology: Cyanosis (C0010520)

Definition (CHV) blue-colored skin caused by too little oxygen in the blood
Definition (CHV) blue-colored skin caused by too little oxygen in the blood
Definition (NCI) A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes resulting from a reduced amount of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Blue-colored skin caused by too little oxygen in the blood.
Definition (CSP) blueness of the skin caused by excessive amounts of deoxyhemoglobin in the skin vessels.
Definition (MSH) A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D003490
ICD9 782.5
ICD10 R23.0
SnomedCT 206899000, 119419001, 158252002, 3415004
English Cyanoses, [D]Cyanosis (context-dependent category), [D]Cyanosis, skin cyanosis, skin cyanosis (physical finding), Cyanosis of skin, cyanosis, Cyanosis NOS, unusual change in color of skin to blue (symptom), unusual change in color of skin to blue, Cyanosis [Disease/Finding], cyanosed, [D]Cyanosis (situation), CYANOSIS, Cyanosed, Cyanosis (finding), Cyanosis of skin (finding), Cyanosis
French CYANOSE, Cyanosé, Cyanose SAI, Cyanose
Portuguese CIANOSE, Cianose NE, Cianosado, Cianose
Spanish CIANOSIS, Cianósico, Cianosis NEOM, [D]cianosis (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]cianosis, [D]cianosis (situación), cianosis (hallazgo), cianosis, cianosis [dup] (hallazgo), cianosis cutánea Y/O mucosa, cianosis de la piel Y/O las mucosas, cianosis cutánea (hallazgo), cianosis cutánea, Cianosis
German ZYANOSE, blaugefaerbt, Zyanose NNB, Zyanose
Dutch cyanotisch, cyanose NAO, cyanose, Cyanose
Italian Cianotico, Cianosi NAS, Cianosi
Japanese チアノーゼ, チアノーゼNOS, チアノーゼNOS, チアノーゼ
Swedish Cyanos
Czech cyanóza, Cyanotický, Cyanóza, Cyanóza NOS
Finnish Syanoosi
Russian TSIANOZ, ЦИАНОЗ
Korean 청색증
Polish Sinica
Hungarian Cyanosisos, Cyanosis k.m.n., Cyanosis
Norwegian Blåsyke, Cyanose, Blåfarging av hud og slimhinner

Ontology: Peripheral cyanosis (C0235532)

Definition (SCTSPA) Hallazgo caracterizado por enlentecimiento del flujo sanguíneo hacia una región corporal periférica asociado con aumento de la extracción de oxígeno de la sangre arterial normalmente saturada
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) Disorder characterized by slowing of blood flow to a body region in association with an increase in oxygen extraction from normally saturated arterial blood
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) Finding characterized by slowing of blood flow to a peripheral body region in association with an increase in oxygen extraction from normally saturated arterial blood
Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 95442007
English CYANOSIS PERIPHERAL, Cyanosis peripheral, Peripheral cyanosis (finding), Peripheral cyanosis (disorder), peripheral cyanosis, Peripheral cyanosis
Dutch perifere cyanose
French Cyanose périphérique, CYANOSE PERIPHERIQUE
German Zyanose peripher, ZYANOSE PERIPHER
Italian Cianosi periferica
Portuguese Cianose periférica, CIANOSE PERIFERICA
Spanish Cianosis periférica, CIANOSIS PERIFERICA, cianosis periférica (hallazgo), cianosis periférica (trastorno), cianosis periférica
Japanese 末梢性チアノーゼ, マッショウセイチアノーゼ
Czech Periferní cyanóza
Hungarian Peripheriás cyanosis

Ontology: Central cyanosis (C0521800)

Definition (SCTSPA) Forma de cianosis que se produce cuando existe disminución de la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre arterial, por lo general con una SaO2 menor de 75%
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) A form of cyanosis that occurs when there is a decrease in oxygen saturation in the arterial blood, usually with an SaO2 of below 75%
Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
SnomedCT 95837007
English Central cyanosis, CYANOSIS CENTRAL, Cyanosis central, central cyanosis, Central cyanosis (disorder)
Italian Cianosi centrale
Japanese 中心性チアノーゼ, チュウシンセイチアノーゼ
Portuguese CIANOSE CENTRAL, Cianose central
French CYANOSE CENTRALE, Cyanose centrale
German ZYANOSE ZENTRAL, Zyanose zentral
Czech Centrální cyanóza
Hungarian Centralis cyanosis
Spanish cianosis central (trastorno), cianosis central, Cianosis central
Dutch centrale cyanose