II. Causes

  1. See Medication Causes of Hyperpigmentation
  2. Adrenal Insufficiency
    1. May be associated with Candidiasis in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome
  3. Darker pigmentation related to ethnicity
  4. Tobacco Abuse
  5. Medication Causes of Hyperpigmentation
  6. Neurofibromatosis 1
  7. McCune-Albright Syndrome
  8. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

III. Differential Diagnosis

  1. See Tooth Discoloration
  2. Oral Melanoma
    1. Rare, but devastating outcomes if missed when early, focal

IV. Management

  1. Exclude Melanoma
  2. Eliminate or reduce dosing of causative agents
  3. Consider Tooth Discoloration causes that may be discoloring mucosa as well
  4. Refractory cases
    1. Surgical mucosal stripping of hyperpigmented tissue (e.g. laser, Cryotherapy, scalpel)

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies