II. Epidemiology

  1. Prevalence: 1 in 50,000 to 200,000
  2. Autosomal Dominant inheritance

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Mucocutaneous pigmentation
  2. Hamartomatous polyps in Gastrointestinal Tract

IV. Signs: Oral Lesions

  1. Prominent pigmented "freckling" of lips
  2. Pigmented spots also seen on:
    1. Buccal mucosa
    2. Face (esp. periorbital)
    3. Fingers
    4. Hands

V. Associated Conditions

  1. Multiple Intestinal Polyps with Colorectal Cancer (and Gastric Cancer) risk
    1. Symptomatic polyps by age 10 to 30 years
  2. Intussusception
    1. Common complication by age 20 years

VI. Management: Gastrointestinal Cancer Screening

  1. Upper and lower endoscopy, video Capsule Endoscopy starting at age 8 years
    1. If no polyps on initial endoscopy
      1. Repeat upper and lower endoscopy every 3 year starting at age 18 years
    2. If polyps on initial endoscopy
      1. Perform upper and lower endoscopy every 3 years
  2. Polyp management
    1. Remove all polyps during endoscopy
    2. Colectomy if polyps cannot be managed by endoscopy

VII. Management: Other Cancer Screening

  1. Pancreatic Cancer screening
    1. MRCP or endoscopic Ultrasound every 1-2 years starting at age 30-35 years old
  2. Breast Cancer Screening (women)
    1. Mammogram and Breast MRI every year starting at age 25 years old
  3. Cervical Cancer Screening (women)
    1. Annual Pap Smear starting at age 18-20 years old
  4. Testicular Cancer screening (men)
    1. Annual testicular and scrotal exam starting at age 10 years old

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