II. Definition

  1. Macrosomia
    1. Fetal weight 4500 grams (ranges from 4000-5000 grams)
  2. Large for Gestational Age
    1. Birth weight above 90th percentile

III. Risk Factors: Macrosomia

  1. Maternal Diabetes Mellitus or Glucose Intolerance
  2. Multiparity
  3. Prior history of macrosomic infant
  4. Post-Dates Gestation
  5. Maternal Obesity or excessive weight gain
  6. Male fetus
  7. Parental stature
  8. Genetic disorders
    1. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
    2. Sotos Syndrome

IV. Pathophysiology

  1. Fetal Growth
    1. Overgrowth
      1. Hallmark of Diabetes Mellitus
      2. No concurrent vascular disease present
    2. Intrauterine Growth Retardation
      1. Long standing Diabetes Mellitus
      2. Vascular Disease with decreased placental perfusion
  2. Control of Fetal Growth
    1. First half of pregnancy: Genetics
    2. Second half of pregnancy: Multifactorial
      1. Nutrients
      2. Oxygen
      3. Insulin as growth factor
  3. Selective Macrosomia
    1. Insulin sensitive tissue
      1. Heart
      2. Liver and Spleen
      3. Thymus
      4. Adrenal
      5. Subcutaneous fat
      6. Shoulders
    2. Insulin insensitive tissues
      1. Water content
      2. Brain mass (relative to rest of body)

V. Signs: Classic infant of Diabetic Mother

  1. Gigantism
  2. Visceromegaly
  3. Plump, sleek liberally coated with vernix
  4. Full faced and plethoric

VI. Diagnosis

  1. Clinician's fetal weight estimate (Leopold's Maneuvers)
    1. Error in weight estimation: 300 grams
    2. More accurate than Obstetric Ultrasound estimate
    3. Estimate altered by physiologic characteristics
      1. Amniotic fluid volume
      2. Uterine Size and configuration
      3. Mother's body habitus
  2. Obstetric Ultrasound
    1. Error in weight estimation: 300 to 550 grams
    2. Estimated fetal weight and Abdominal circumference
    3. Correlates 88% with diagnosis of macrosomia

VII. Efficacy: Fetal Macrosomia prediction and prevention

  1. Methods proven ineffective at complication prevention
    1. Elective cesarean section
      1. Analysis based on permanent Brachial Plexus Injury
      2. C/S for EFW 4500g prevents 1 case/3700 treated
      3. U.S. cost: $8.7 Million/case prevented
    2. Early induction
      1. Increases rate of cesarean section
      2. Does not favorably alter perinatal outcomes
      3. Sanchez-Ramos (2002) Obstet Gynecol 100:997-1002
  2. Specific population targeting is also ineffective
    1. Vaginal Birth after Cesarean section
    2. Maternal Diabetes Mellitus
      1. Optimal Blood Glucose management is paramount
      2. Other intervention strategies are unproven
    3. Previous Shoulder Dystocia

VIII. Management

  1. Tight glycemic control
    1. Decreased Fetal Macrosomia
    2. Decreased Neonatal Hypoglycemia
    3. Decreased perinatal mortality
  2. Elective Cesarean Section (no support in literature)
    1. Indications per ACOG
      1. Estimated fetal weight > 4500 grams
    2. Possible Indications if Estimated fetal weight >4000g
      1. Pelvic architecture
      2. Prior cesarean section
      3. Prior Shoulder Dystocia
      4. Evidence of Cephalopelvic Disproportion
      5. History of poor progress of labor

IX. Complications

  1. Labor Dystocia
    1. Labor Augmentation needed
    2. Prolonged second stage
  2. Shoulder Dystocia
  3. Perinatal asphyxia
  4. Birth injury
  5. Respiratory distress syndrome
  6. Hypoglycemia

Images: Related links to external sites (from Google)

Ontology: Fetal Macrosomia (C0015938)

Definition (MSH) A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D005320
English Fetal Macrosomias, Macrosomia, Fetal, Macrosomias, Fetal, fetal macrosomia, Fetal Macrosomia [Disease/Finding], macrosomia fetal, Fetal macrosomia, Foetal macrosomia, Fetal Macrosomia
Japanese 胎児性巨大児, タイジセイキョダイジ, 巨体躯症-胎児, 巨大胎児, 胎児巨体躯症, 胎児-巨大
Swedish Stort foster
Czech fétus - makrozomie, Makrosomie plodu, Fetální makrosomie, velký plod
Finnish Sikiön jättikasvu
Russian PLODA MAKROSOMIIA, GIGANTIZM PLODA, ГИГАНТИЗМ ПЛОДА, ПЛОДА МАКРОСОМИЯ
Spanish Macrosomia Fetal, Macrosomía Fetal, Macrosomía fetal
Croatian FETUSNA MAKROSOMIJA
Polish Płód olbrzymi, Gigantyzm płodowy, Makrosomia płodu
Hungarian Magzat macrosomiája, Magzati macrosomia
Portuguese Macrossomia fetal, Macrossomia Fetal
Dutch foetale macrosomie, Foetale macrosomie, Macrosomie, foetale
German fetale Makrosomie, Fetale Makrosomie, Makrosomie, fetale
Italian Macrosomia fetale
French Macrosomie foetale