II. Anatomy

  1. Bone and Ligament
    1. orthoAnteriorBoneShoulder.jpgAlso available as a Poster size image. See printing instructions and image restrictions.
    2. orthoPosteriorBoneShoulder.jpgAlso available as a Poster size image. See printing instructions and image restrictions.
    3. orthoArmShoulderJointGrayBB326.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    4. orthoArmShoulderJointGrayBB327.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    5. orthoArmShoulderJointGrayBB328.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  2. Muscles
    1. ShoulderAnteriorBiceps.jpg
    2. orthoArmShoulderMusclesLtGrayBB410.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    3. orthoArmShoulderMusclesLtDeepGrayBB411.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    4. orthoArmShoulderMusclesLtPosteriorGrayBB412.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

III. Anatomy: Bones

  1. Scapula
    1. Scapular spine
      1. Third thoracic Vertebrae
    2. Scapular inferior angle
      1. Eighth thoracic Vertebrae (7th rib)
  2. Clavicle
  3. Humerus

IV. Anatomy: Muscles

  1. Muscles attaching Axial skeleton to Scapula
    1. Trapezius
    2. Levator Scapulae
    3. Rhomboids
    4. Serratus anterior
  2. Muscles attaching Axial skeleton to Humerus
    1. Latissimus dorsi
    2. Pectoralis major

V. Anatomy: Joints and Articulations

  1. Glenohumeral joint (GH Joint)
    1. Glenoid of Scapula meets humeral head
    2. Golf ball on golf tee
      1. Articulation with bone: 30%
      2. Articulation with glenoid labrum: 75%
  2. Posterior Chest Wall (Scapulothoracic articulation)
  3. Acromioclavicular Joint (AC Joint)
    1. Acromion of Scapula meets the clavicle
  4. Sternoclavicular Joint (SC Joint)

VI. Anatomy: Subacromial Space

  1. Coracoclavicular arch forms the roof of the subacromial space
    1. Coracoid process
    2. Coracoacromial ligament
    3. Acromion process
  2. Rotator cuff composition (mnemonic: SITS Muscles)
    1. Anterior Rotator Cuff
      1. Subscapularis Muscle
    2. Posterior Rotator Cuff
      1. Infraspinatus Muscle
      2. Teres Minor Muscle
    3. Superior Rotator Cuff
      1. Supraspinatus Muscle
  3. Subacromial bursae
    1. Separates cuff from overlying coracoacromial arch
    2. Includes subdeltoid bursa and subcoracoid bursa
  4. Image
    1. ShoulderAnteriorRotatorCuff.jpg

VII. Physiology: Function

  1. Scapula stabilized prior to arm movement
  2. Rotator Cuff (Musculotendinous)
    1. Steadies humeral head in glenoid
    2. Results in humeral head descent
  3. Scapulothoracic Musculature
    1. Results in forward and lateral Scapula movement
    2. Initiates first 60-70 degrees of Shoulder Abduction
  4. Glenohumeral Musculature
    1. Deltoid and supraspinatus muscles
    2. Accounts for last two thirds of Shoulder Abduction

VIII. Physiology: Muscle action at Glenohumeral joint

  1. Shoulder Abduction
    1. Middle deltoid muscle
    2. Supraspinatus muscle
  2. Shoulder Adduction
    1. Pectoralis major muscle
    2. Latissimus dorsi muscle
  3. Shoulder Flexion
    1. Anterior deltoid muscle
    2. Coracobrachialis muscle
  4. Shoulder Extension
    1. Posterior deltoid muscle
    2. Latissimus dorsi muscle
    3. Teres major muscle
  5. Shoulder Internal Rotation
    1. Pectoralis major muscle
    2. Latissimus dorsi muscle
    3. Teres major muscle
    4. Subscapularis muscle
  6. Shoulder External Rotation
    1. Infraspinatus muscle
    2. Teres Minor muscle

Images: Related links to external sites (from Google)

Ontology: Shoulder (C0037004)

Definition (NCI) The region of the body between the neck and the upper arm. (NCI)
Definition (SNOMEDCT) The body part defined by the shoulder joint and its surrounding structures
Definition (NCI) The region of the body between the neck and the upper arm.
Definition (CSP) junction of the arm and trunk; also that part of the trunk which is bounded at the back by the scapula.
Concepts Body Location or Region (T029)
MSH D012782
SnomedCT 16982005
HL7 SHOL, SHOLJ
English Shoulder, Shoulders, Shoulder, NOS, shoulder, Shoulder region, Structure of shoulder region, Structure of shoulder region, unspecified, SHOULDER, anatomies shoulder, shoulder anatomy, shouldering, anatomy shoulder, shoulders, Shoulder region structure, Shoulder region structure (body structure), Shoulder (Anatomy), Sholder Joint
Swedish Skuldra
Spanish estructura de la región de la espalda, hombro, estructura de la región de la espalda (estructura corporal), estructura de la región del hombro (estructura corporal), estructura de la región del hombro, Hombro, Hombros
Czech rameno
Finnish Olkapää
Russian PLECHO, ПЛЕЧО
Croatian RAME
Latvian Plecs
Polish Okolica naramienna, Bark, Obręcz kończyny górnej
French Épaule
German Schulter
Italian Spalla
Dutch Schouder
Portuguese Ombro, Ombros

Ontology: Shoulder Injuries and Disorders (C1456701)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Your shoulder joint is composed of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone). Your shoulders are the most movable joints in your body. They can also be unstable because the ball of the upper arm is larger than the shoulder socket that holds it. To remain in a stable or normal position, the shoulder must be anchored by muscles, tendons and ligaments. Because the shoulder can be unstable, it is the site of many common problems. They include sprains, strains, dislocations, separations, tendinitis, bursitis, torn rotator cuffs, frozen shoulder, fractures and arthritis.

Usually shoulder problems are treated with RICE. This stands for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. Other treatments include exercise, medicines to reduce pain and swelling, and surgery if other treatments don't work.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
English Shoulder Injuries and Disorders