II. Definition

  1. Serum transaminase most specific for hepatocyte injury

III. Normal

  1. Level <35 U/L

IV. Increased

  1. See Liver Function Test Abnormality
  2. Common causes based on degree of elevation
    1. Alcohol
      1. ALT rarely above 400
      2. AST more than twice ALT
    2. Transient biliary obstruction: Common Bile Duct Stone
      1. ALT may rise to 1000
      2. ALT rises rapidly and then quickly normalizes
    3. Autoimmune Hepatitis: ALT rises gradually to 1000
    4. Viral Hepatitis
      1. Most viruses: ALT rises gradually to 2000
      2. Atypicals (e.g. herpes): Rapid increase to 2000
    5. Medications:
      1. Most medications: ALT rises gradually to 1500
      2. Acetaminophin and toxins: Rises rapidly to >2000
  3. Common liver disease causes
    1. Alcohol Abuse
    2. Cirrhosis
    3. Chronic Hepatitis B
    4. Chronic Hepatitis C
    5. Acute Viral Hepatitis
      1. Hepatitis A
      2. Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)
    6. Hepatotoxins
    7. Steatohepatitis (Fatty Liver)
  4. Uncommon liver disease causes
    1. Autoimmune Hepatitis
    2. Hemochromatosis
    3. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
    4. Wilson's Disease
  5. Non-liver disease causes
    1. See Aspartate Transaminase (AST)
  6. Conditions with ratio of ALT to AST > 2
    1. Alcoholism
    2. Wilson's Disease (ratio may exceed 4)

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Ontology: Alanine Transaminase (C0001899)

Definition (NCI) Alanine aminotransferase 1 (496 aa, ~55 kDa) is encoded by the human GPT gene. This protein plays a role in both amino acid metabolism and pyruvate synthesis.
Definition (MSH) An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Enzyme (T126)
MSH D000410
SnomedCT 56935002
LNC LP31977-9, LP15333-5, MTHU006766
English Alanine 2 Oxoglutarate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase, Alanine-2-Oxoglutarate Aminotransferase, Aminotransferase, Alanine, Aminotransferase, Alanine-2-Oxoglutarate, Glutamic Alanine Transaminase, Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase, Glutamic-Alanine Transaminase, Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase, Transaminase, Glutamic-Alanine, Transaminase, Glutamic-Pyruvic, alanine aminotransferase, L-Alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, ALAT-Alanine aminotransferase, ALT, Alanine Transaminase, Glut pyruvate transaminase, L-ala:2-oxoglut aminotransfer, Transaminase, Alanine, glutamic alanine transaminase, alanine transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, S-ALAT, Alanine Transaminase [Chemical/Ingredient], s-alat, alts, SGPT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gpt, alt alanine aminotransferase, gpts, alt, alanine transaminase (ALT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, transaminase glutamic-pyruvic, Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase 1, Glutamic--Alanine Transaminase 1, Glutamic-Pyruvate Transaminase, GPT 1, Glutamic--Pyruvic Transaminase 1, Alanine Aminotransferase 1, EC 2.6.1.2, Alanine aminotransferase, GPT, Glutamic-alanine transaminase, Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, ALAT - Alanine aminotransferase, ALT - Alanine aminotransferase, Alanine transaminase, Glutamate pyruvate transaminase, L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase (substance), AAT1, GPT1, ALT1
Swedish Alanintransaminas
Czech alanintransaminasa, alaninaminotransferasa
Finnish Alaniiniaminotransferaasi
Italian Glutammico-piruvico transaminasi, Alanina aminotransferasi, Glutammico-alanina transaminasi, Alanina 2-ossoglutarato aminotransferasi, Alanina transaminasi
Russian ALANIN-TRANSAMINAZA, ALANINAMINOTRANSFERAZA, SGPT, АЛАНИНАМИНОТРАНСФЕРАЗА, АЛАНИН-ТРАНСАМИНАЗА
Japanese グルタミン酸-アラニントランスアミナーゼ, アラニントランスアミナーゼ, アラニンアミノトランスフェラーゼ, グルタミック-ピルビックトランスアミナーゼ, グルタミン酸-ピルビン酸トランスアミナーゼ
Croatian ALANIN TRANSAMINAZA, ALANIN AMINOTRANSFERAZA
Polish Transaminaza alaninowa, Aminotransferaza alaninowa
Portuguese Tgp, Alanina Aminotransferase, Alanina Transaminase, Transaminase Glutâmico-Pirúvica
Spanish alanina aminotransferasa (sustancia), alanina aminotransferasa, transaminasa glutámica - alanina, transaminasa glutámica - pirúvica, Alanina Aminotransferasa, Alanina Transaminasa, Transaminasa Glutamico-Piruvica
French SGPT, Alanine transaminase, Glutamique-alanine transaminase, Glutamique-pyruvique transaminase
German Alanin-Aminotransferase, Alanin-Transaminase, GPT, Glutamin-Pyruvattransaminase

Ontology: Transaminases (C0002594)

Definition (NCI) Transaminases are a sub-subclass of mostly pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transferase enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Mediating conversion of major intermediate metabolites and reversible transamination, Transaminases are often involved in cellular nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis and in the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles.
Definition (MSH) A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Enzyme (T126)
MSH D000637
SnomedCT 124393002, 130093006
English Aminotransferases, Transaminases, aminotransferase, Transaminases [Chemical/Ingredient], transaminase, aminotransferases, transaminases, Transaminase, Aminotransferase, Aminotransferase (substance), EC 2.6.1
Swedish Transaminaser
Czech aminotransferasy, transaminasy
Finnish Transaminaasit
Italian Aminotransferasi, Transaminasi
Russian AMINOTRANSFERAZY, TRANSAMINAZY, АМИНОТРАНСФЕРАЗЫ, ТРАНСАМИНАЗЫ
Croatian TRANSAMINAZE
Polish Aminotransferazy, Transaminazy
Japanese アミノ基転移酵素, アミノトランスフェラーゼ, アミノフェラーゼ, トランスアミナーゼ
Spanish aminotransferasa, transaminasa (sustancia), transaminasa, Transaminasas, Aminotransferasas
French Aminotransférases, Transaminases
German Aminotransferasen, Transaminasen
Portuguese Transaminases, Aminotransferases

Ontology: SGPT - Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (C0376147)

Definition (NCI) Activity measured as a test of liver function, human Glutamic-Pyruvate Transaminases (Alanine Aminotransferase Family) are pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes involved in cellular nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and liver gluconeogenesis. Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminases mediate conversion of major intermediate metabolites, catalyzing reversible transamination between alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. (NCI)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) An enzyme found in the liver and other tissues. A high level of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Enzyme (T126)
MSH D000410
SnomedCT 56935002
English SGPT - Glut pyruvate transam, SGPT - Glutamate pyruvate transaminase, ALT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alanine transferase, SGPT (ALT), SGPT
Portuguese SGPT
Spanish SGPT
German SGPT
Italian SGPT