II. Epidemiology

  1. Trachoma responsible for 15% of world blindness

III. History

  1. Trachoma first described in 16th Century B.C. Egypt

IV. Characteristics

  1. Trachoma
    1. Highest risk of Trachoma in first 3-6 years of life
    2. Conjunctival scarring (Cicatricial Trachoma)
      1. Chronic follicular Conjunctivitis
      2. Chronic inflammation from recurrent infection
      3. Scarring complete by young adulthood
  2. Adult Inclusion Conjunctivitis (AIC)
    1. Affects <2% with genital tract Chlamydia
    2. Transmission
      1. Sexually Transmitted Infection (oculogenital)
      2. Historical: Non-chlorinated swimming pools (1900)
    3. Acute follicular Conjunctivitis >5 days post-exposure
  3. Neonatal Inclusion Conjunctivitis (NIC)
    1. Transmission during Vaginal Delivery
    2. Conjunctivitis onset 5-14 days after birth
    3. Associated with development of Chlamydia Pneumonia
    4. Initial watery discharge becomes copious and purulent

V. Causes

VII. Management

  1. Trachoma
    1. Azithromycin 20 mg/kg orally (up to 1 gram) for single dose or
    2. Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 21 days
  2. Adult Inclusion Conjunctivitis (AIC)
    1. Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 21 days
    2. Erythromycin 250 mg orally four times daily for 21 days
  3. Neonatal Inclusion Conjunctivitis (NIC)
    1. Erythromycin base or EES 50 mg/kg/day divided four times daily for 14 days

VIII. Prevention

  1. Erythromycin or Tetracycline ophthalmic ointment
    1. Applied to newborns eyes within 1 hour of delivery
  2. Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention
  3. Sexually Transmitted Disease surveillance in Pregnancy

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Ontology: Inclusion conjunctivitis (C0009770)

Definition (MSHCZE) Zánět spojivek (konjunktivitida) charakterizovaný nálezem inkluzí (tzv. iniciálních tělísek) ve stěrech ze spojivky. Bývá způsoben chlamydiemi. Projevuje se hnisavou sekrecí. Vyskytuje se u novorozenců (inkluzní blenorea) nebo dospělých (tzv. konjunktivitida z plaveckého bazénu). Léčí se antibiotiky, dospělým lze podávat tetracyklin, novorozencům např. erythromycin. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (MSH) An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously.
Definition (CSP) infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma; it is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools; the etiological agent is Chlamydia trachomatis whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D003235
ICD9 077.0
ICD10 A74.0
SnomedCT 111840005, 186674002, 186733005, 154370006, 266202002, 56009001, 266109000, 231861005
English Blennorrhea, Inclusion, Blennorrheas, Inclusion, Conjunctivitides, Inclusion, Conjunctivitis, Inclusion, Inclusion Blennorrheas, Inclusion Conjunctivitides, Inclusion Blennorrhea, Inclusion Conjunctivitis, inclusion blenorrhea, paratrachoma, paratrachoma (diagnosis), inclusion conjunctivitis, inclusion conjunctivitis (diagnosis), Conjunctivitis chlamydial, Conjunctivitis, Inclusion [Disease/Finding], conjunctivitis inclusion, chlamydial conjunctivitis, conjunctivitis chlamydia, Conjunctivitis;chlamydia, Trachoma inc. conjunctivitis, Inclusion blenorrhoea, Chlamydia conjunctivitis, Inclusion blennorrhea, Paratrachoma, Chronic conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis, Inclusion conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydial conjunctivitis, Chlamydial conjunctivitis (disorder), Inclusion blennorrhoea, Inclusion conjunctivitis (disorder), Inclusion blenorrhea, Inclusion conjunctivitis, chlamydia conjunctivitis
Italian Congiuntivite da Chlamydia, Congiuntivite da inclusione, Blenorragia da inclusione, Blenorrea da inclusioni, Congiuntivite da inclusioni
Dutch inclusie-blennorroe, Conjunctivitis door Chlamydia, Chlamydia-conjunctivitis, inclusie-conjunctivitis, Blenorroe, inclusie-, Conjunctivitis, inclusion-, Inclusion-conjunctivitis
French Blennorrhée à inclusions, Conjonctivite à Chlamydia, Conjonctivite à inclusion, Conjonctivite à inclusions
German Einschlussblenorrhoe, Chlamydienkonjunktivitis, Einschlusskonjunktivitis, Konjunktivitis durch Chlamydien, Bindehautentzündung, Einschluß-, Blennorrhoe, Einschluß-, Einschlußblennorrhoe, Konjunktivitis, Einschluß-
Portuguese Blenorreia de inclusão, Blenorreia de Inclusão, Conjuntivite a clamídia, Conjuntivite por inclusão, Conjuntivite de Inclusão
Spanish Blenorrea de inclusión, Blenorrea por inclusión, conjuntivitis por inclusión, blenorrea por inclusión, conjuntivitis por inclusión (trastorno), blenorrea de inclusión, conjuntivitis clamidial, conjuntivitis crónica por Chlamydia trachomatis, conjuntivitis de inclusión (trastorno), conjuntivitis de inclusión por Chlamydia trachomatis, conjuntivitis de inclusión, conjuntivitis por clamidia (trastorno), conjuntivitis por clamidia, conjuntivitis por inclusión (concepto no activo), paratracoma, Conjuntivitis por clamidia, Conjuntivitis de inclusión, Blenorrea de Inclusión, Conjuntivitis de Inclusión
Japanese クラミジア性結膜炎, フウニュウタイセイノウロウ, クラミジアセイケツマクエン, フウニュウタイケツマクエン, 結膜炎-封入体, 封入体性結膜炎, 封入体性膿漏, 封入体結膜炎, 結膜炎-封入体性, 膿漏-封入体性
Swedish Konjunktivit, inklusion
Czech konjunktivitida inkluzní, Paratrachom, Chlamydiová konjunktivitida, Inkluzní blenorea, Inkluzní konjunktivitida, paratrachom, konjunktivitida inkluzorní
Finnish Inkluusiokonjunktiviitti
Russian KON"IUNKTIVIT S VKLIUCHENIIAMI, BLENNOREIA S VKLIUCHENIIAMI, БЛЕННОРЕЯ С ВКЛЮЧЕНИЯМИ, КОНЪЮНКТИВИТ С ВКЛЮЧЕНИЯМИ
Korean 클라미디아 결막염
Polish Zapalenie spojówek wtrętowe
Hungarian inclusiós conjunctivitis, Inclusiós blenorrhoea, chlamydiás conjunctivitis, Zárványtestes blenorrhoea
Norwegian Konjunktivitt, inklusjons-, Inklusjonskonjunktivitt

Ontology: Trachoma (C0040592)

Definition (MSH) A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Definition (MSHCZE) Těžká infekční forma zánětu spojivek (konjunktivitidy) způsobená chlamydiemi. Vyskytuje se zejm. v Asii a Jižní Americe. Probíhá řadu měsíců a není-li léčen, vede ke ztrátě zraku. V rozvojových zemích je závažným zdravotním problémem a významnou příčinou slepoty. Včasná léčba antibiotiky je úspěšná. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (CSP) chronic infection of the conjunctiva and cornea caused by chlamydia trachomatis.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D014141
ICD9 076.9, 076
ICD10 A71 , A71.9
SnomedCT 186672003, 187379009, 154367007, 266200005, 2576002
English Trachomas, Trachoma, unspecified, Unspecified trachoma, [X]Trachoma, unspecified, trachoma, trachoma (diagnosis), Egyptian Ophthalmia, Ophthalmia, Egyptian, Trachoma, Trachoma [Disease/Finding], [X]Trachoma, unspecified (disorder), Unspecified trachoma (disorder), Trachoma (disorder), trachomatis; Chlamydia, Trachoma, NOS, Trachoma NOS
Dutch trachoom niet-gespecificeerd, trachomatis; Chlamydia, Trachoom, niet gespecificeerd, trachoom, Trachoom
French Trachome, non précisé, Conjonctivite granuleuse, Trachome, Ophtalmie d'Égypte, Ophtalmie égyptienne, Conjonctive égyptienne
German Trachoma, unspezifisch, Trachom, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Trachoma, Trachom, Conjunctivitis granulosa trachomatosa, Conjunctivitis trachomatosa, Einschlußkonjunktivitis, trachomatöse, Körnerkrankheit
Italian Tracoma, non specificato, Oftalmia egiziana, Tracoma
Portuguese Tracoma NE, Oftalmia Egípcia, Conjuntivite Granulosa, Conjuntivite Granular, Conjuntivite Tracomatosa, Tracoma
Spanish Tracoma no especificado, Oftalmía Egipcia, tracoma no especificado, tracoma no especificado (trastorno), [X]tracoma, no especificado (trastorno), [X]tracoma, no especificado, Conjuntivitis Granular, Conjuntivitis Tracomatosa, tracoma (trastorno), tracoma, Tracoma
Japanese トラコーマ、詳細不明, トラコーマショウサイフメイ, トラコーマ, トラコーマ, 顆粒結膜炎, トラホーム, 顆粒性結膜炎, 結膜炎-顆粒性
Swedish Trakom
Czech trachom, Trachom, blíže neurčený, Trachom
Finnish Trakooma
Russian TRAKHOMA, ТРАХОМА
Korean 트라코마, 상세불명의 트라코마
Croatian TRAHOM
Polish Zapalenie spojówek ziarniste, Jaglica, Zapalenie oczu egipskie
Hungarian trachoma, nem meghatározott, trachoma
Norwegian Trakom