II. Definitions

  1. Ageusia
    1. Loss of Taste Sensation
  2. Hypogeusia
    1. Diminished Taste Sensation
  3. Dysgeusia
    1. Altered Taste Sensation
  4. Phantogeusia
    1. Gustatatory Hallucination (without external taste stimulus)

III. Pathophysiology

  1. See Smell Sensation
  2. See Taste Sensation
  3. Innervation via parasympathetic fibers
    1. Anterior two thirds of Tongue: Lingual nerve
    2. Posterior one third of Tongue: Glossopharyngeal Nerve
  4. Loss of Taste Sensation is usually due to Anosmia
    1. Tongue differentiates only bitter, salt, sour, sweet

IV. Precaution

  1. Most altered Taste Sensation is secondary to Olfactory Dysfunction (95% of cases)

V. Causes: Altered or loss of Taste Sensation

  1. See Olfactory Dysfunction
  2. Miscellaneous Causes
    1. Aging (difficulty detecting salty or bitter taste)
    2. Anxiety Disorder
    3. Cancer
    4. Renal Failure
    5. Hepatic failure
    6. HIV Infection
  3. Endocrine Disorders
    1. Cushing's Syndrome
    2. Hypothyroidism
    3. Diabetes Mellitus (poorly controlled)
  4. Vitamin Deficiency
    1. Vitamin B12 Deficiency
    2. Vitamin B3 Deficiency
    3. Zinc Deficiency
    4. Copper Deficiency
  5. Local injury or inflammation
    1. Radiation Therapy (secondary Xerostomia and mucositis)
    2. Glossitis
    3. Tobacco abuse
    4. Denture use (if associated with poor hygiene or cleansing of dentures)
    5. Periodontal Disease or Gingivitis
    6. Middle ear surgery (affecting Chorda Tympani)
    7. Dental surgery (wisdom Tooth Extraction is more commonly related)
  6. Local infection
    1. Oral Candidiasis
    2. Oral abscess
    3. Upper Respiratory Infection
  7. Medications
    1. See Drug-Induced Gustatory Dysfunction
    2. Chlorhexidine (Peridex)
  8. Neurologic conditions
    1. Bell's Palsy
    2. Familial Dysautonomia
    3. Multiple Sclerosis
  9. Toxin Exposure
    1. See Olfactory Dysfunction for toxin-related causes
    2. Pepper gas
    3. Weed killer (trifluralin)

VI. References

  1. Baloh in Goldman (2000) Cecil Medicine, p. 2249-50
  2. Mirowski in Feldman (2002) Sleisenger GI, p. 339-40
  3. Malaty (2013) Am Fam Physician 88(1): 852-9 [PubMed]

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window

Ontology: Dysgeusia (C0013378)

Definition (CCC) Diminished ability to taste
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by abnormal sensual experience with the taste of foodstuffs; it can be related to a decrease in the sense of smell.
Definition (NCI) Abnormal appreciation of the taste of foodstuffs, can be related to decreased sense of smell.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A bad taste in the mouth.
Definition (MSH) A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality.
Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D004408
ICD10 R43.2
SnomedCT 206815007, 158193000, 271801002, 36955009, 1932001
LNC MTHU013239
English Dysgeusias, TASTE PERVERSION, DYSGEUSIA, PARAGEUSIA, Parageusia, TASTE ALTERATION, [D]Parageusia, [D]Parageusia (context-dependent category), Alteration in taste, disturbance of taste (diagnosis), taste disturbances (symptom), taste disturbances, disturbance of taste, Taste abnormality, Taste alteration, Taste changed, Taste disturbance, Dysgensia, Taste perversion, Taste perversion of, Distorted Taste, Taste, Distorted, Parageusias, Dysgeusia [Disease/Finding], rndx gustatory alteration (diagnosis), rndx gustatory alteration, taste disturbance, taste impairment, disturbances taste, taste alteration, abnormalities taste, distort taste, Disturbance;taste, alterations taste, dysgeusias, taste perversion, dysgeusia, taste abnormality, parageusia (diagnosis), Impaired Ability To Taste, [D]Parageusia (situation), parageusia, Gustatory Alteration, Disordered taste, Distorted taste, Taste sense altered, Things taste abnormal, Things taste different, Things taste peculiar, Perversion of sense of taste, Adverse taste perception, Taste sense altered (finding), Gustatory alteration, disorder; taste, taste; disorder, Dysgeusia
French DYSGUEUSIE, Dysgénésie, Altération du goût, Anomalie gustative, Perversion du goût, Goût altéré, Perturbation du goût, ALTERATION DU GOUT, PARAGUEUSIE, PERVERSION DU GOUT, Dysgueusie, Paragueusie
Portuguese DISGEUSIA, Paladar alterado, Anomalia do paladar, Perversão do paladar, Alteração do paladar, ALTERACAO DO PALADAR, PARAGEUSIA, PERVERSAO DO PALADAR, Disgeusia, Paladar Distorcido, Parageusia
Spanish DISGEUSIA, Gusto cambiado, Anormalidad del gusto, Perversión del gusto, Alteración del gusto, Trastorno del gusto, Perversión del sentido del gusto, [D]parageusia (categoría dependiente del contexto), GUSTO ALTERADO, PARAGEUSIA, SABOR, ALTERACION, [D]parageusia, perversión del sentido del gusto, [D]parageusia (situación), disgeusia, Deformación del Sabor, alteración del sentido del gusto (hallazgo), alteración del sentido del gusto, gusto alterado, gusto anormal, parageusia, Disgeusia, Parageusia, Distorción del Gusto
German DYSGEUSIE, Geschmacksaenderung, Geschmack geaendert, Geschmacksperversion, Anomalie des Geschmackssinns, Dysgenesie, GESCHMACK VERAENDERT, GESCHMACKSSTOERUNG, PARAGEUSIE, Geschmacksstoerung, Dysgeusie, Parageusie, Geschmackssinn, gestörter
Dutch smaak gewijzigd, parageusia, smaakvervorming, smaakafwijking, smaakstoornis, smaakverandering, smaakzin; stoornis, stoornis; smaakzin, dysgeusie, Ageusie, Dysgeusie, Parageusie, Smaakstoornis
Italian Gusto modificato, Alterazione del gusto, Anomalia del gusto, Perversione del gusto, Parageusia, Alterazione del senso del gusto, Disgeusia
Japanese 味覚変化, 味覚障害, 味覚倒錯, 錯味, ミカクイジョウ, ミカクショウガイ, ミカクヘンカ, ミカクトウサク, サクミ, 味覚異常, 味覚不全
Swedish Smakrubbning
Czech dysgeuzie, Chuť abnormální, Narušení chuti, Dysgeuzie, Změněná chuť, Parageuzie, Alterace chuti, Zkreslená chuť
Finnish Dysgeusia
Russian VKUSA IZVRASHCHENIE, DISGEVZIIA, PARAGEVZIIA, ВКУСА ИЗВРАЩЕНИЕ, ДИСГЕВЗИЯ, ПАРАГЕВЗИЯ
Korean 착미증
Polish Smak spaczony
Hungarian Rendellenes ízérzés, Ízérzés zavara, Izérzés megváltozása, Ízlelési rendellenesség, Rendellenes ízlelés, Ízérzés, változott, Ízérzés zavar, Fonák ízérzés
Norwegian Dysgeusi, Forvrengt smakssans

Ontology: Hypogeusia (C0151934)

Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D000370
SnomedCT 697990000
English GUSTATORY SENSE DIMINISHED, Decreased taste, taste decreased, Gustatory sense diminished, Taste diminished, Hypogensia, Hypogeusias, decreased sense of taste, decreased sense of taste (symptom), hypogeusia, Decreased sense of taste, Hypogeusia (finding), Hypogeusia
Dutch smaak verminderd, smaakzin verminderd, hypogeusie, Hypogeusie
French Goût diminué, Sens gustatif diminué, Hypogueusie, DIMINUTION SENSATIONS GUSTATIVES
German Geschmackssinn vermindert, Geschmack vermindert, Hypogeusie, GESCHMACKSSINN GESTOERT, Hypogeusia, Verminderte Geschmacksempfindung
Italian Gusto diminuito, Sensibilità gustativa diminuita, Ipogeusia
Portuguese Sentido do gosto diminuído, Paladar diminuído, Hipogeusia, DIMINUICAO DAS SENSACOES GUSTATIV
Spanish Gusto disminuido, Sentido del gusto disminuido, Hipoageusia, GUSTO DISMINUIDO, hipogeusia, disminución del sentido del gusto (hallazgo), disminución del sentido del gusto, Hipogeusia
Japanese 味覚低下, 味覚減退, ミカクゲンタイ, ミカクテイカ
Czech Snížené vnímání chuti, Snížená chuť, Hypogeuzie, hypogeusie, hypogeuzie, snížené vnímání chuti
Hungarian Hypogeusia, Csökkent ízérzés, Csökkent gustatoros érzékelés
Norwegian Hypogeusi, Svekket smakssans