II. Epidemiology

  1. Global Statistics
    1. Worldwide HIV Prevalence: 33.6 Million people
    2. Daily new infections: 16,000 new cases each day
    3. Cumulative deaths due to HIV and AIDS: 16.3 Million
      1. In 1999, persons dying of HIV: 2.6 Million
    4. HIV Infected Children: 1.2 Million
    5. Children orphaned due to HIV Infection: 11.2 Million
  2. Worldwide Distribution of HIV
    1. North America: 1.1 Million (3% of world's cases)
    2. South America: 1.3 Million
    3. Europe: 0.5 Million
    4. Asia and Pacific: 6.4 Million
      1. India accounts for 3.5 Million cases
    5. Africa: 36 Million
      1. Some countries have 25% HIV positive population
  3. United States Statistics
    1. HIV Incidence: 40,000 new cases per year
      1. More than 25% are estimated to unaware of their HIV status
    2. HIV new infection rates growing in specific groups
      1. Young persons aged 18 to 24 years
      2. Heterosexual patients
      3. Rural areas
      4. African-American and Latino women
    3. HIV Prevalence
      1. Overall in U.S.: 900,000 HIV infected persons
      2. Prevalence rate in ages 15-49: 0.6%
    4. AIDS Mortality
      1. Annual deaths due to AIDS: 16,000
      2. Leading cause of death in adults ages 25-44 years
    5. AIDS Prevalence: 501,310 patients (62% have died)
    6. Transmission
      1. Homosexual cases fell: 64% (1987) to 45% (1995)
      2. Heterosexual cases rose: 3% (1987) to 10% (1995)
        1. In 1987: 3% HIV cases
        2. In 1995: 10% HIV cases
    7. Intravenous Drug Abuse
      1. Prevalence: 5% to 60% HIV positive
    8. Gender
      1. Women living with HIV in U.S.: 300,000
      2. Female AIDS cases rose: 8% (1987) to 18% (1995)
    9. Race
      1. Caucasian (46%)
      2. African Americans (35%): disproportionate rise
      3. Latino (18%): disproportionate rise
      4. Asian American (0.7%)

III. Pathophysiology: Transmission

IV. References

  1. (9/22/06) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55(RR14):1-17

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Ontology: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (C0001175)

Definition (MSHFRE) Immunodéficience cellulaire acquise, associée à l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH). Selon les critères du CDC définis en 1993, le sida correspond à un nombre de lymphocytes T CD4 inférieur à 200 cellules/microlitre ou inférieur à 14% des lymphocytes totaux, à une augmentation de la susceptibilité aux infections opportunistes et à l'apparition de néoplasies. Les manifestations cliniques incluent des pertes de poids (diarrhée) et une démence.
Definition (NCI) A syndrome resulting from the acquired deficiency of cellular immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterized by the reduction of the Helper T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the lymph nodes. Symptoms include generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and chronic diarrhea. Patients with AIDS are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections (usually pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, tuberculosis, candida infections, and cryptococcosis), and the development of malignant neoplasms (usually non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma). The human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles, or transfusion of contaminated blood.
Definition (NCI) A disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually occur only in individuals with a weak immune system.
Definition (MSH) An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Definition (CSP) one or more indicator diseases, depending on laboratory evidence of HIV infection (CDC); late phase of HIV infection characterized by marked suppression of immune function resulting in opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and other systemic symptoms (NIAID).
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D000163
ICD10 B20
SnomedCT 62479008, 234644008, 186715004, 186705005, 266201009
English Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome, Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome, Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndromes, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes, AIDS, Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome, Acquired, Immuno-Deficiency Syndromes, Acquired, Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Acquired, Immunodeficiency Syndromes, Acquired, Immunologic Deficiency Syndrome, Acquired, Syndrome, Acquired Immuno-Deficiency, Syndrome, Acquired Immunodeficiency, Syndromes, Acquired Immuno-Deficiency, Syndromes, Acquired Immunodeficiency, ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDR, ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, AIDS, NOS, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, NOS, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, NOS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AIDS - Acquired immunodef synd, Acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection syndrome NOS, Acquired immune def.syndr.NOS, Acquired immunodeficiency synd, Immunodef-hum immunodef virus, Immunodeficiency due to human immunodefic virus infection, IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME ACQUIRED <AIDS>, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS (disorder), Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (disorder), Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), AUTOIMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, IMMUNODEFIC SYNDROME ACQUIRED, ACQUIRED IMMUNO DEFIC SYNDROME, ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFIC SYNDROME, IMMUNOL DEFIC SYNDROME ACQUIRED, ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFIC SYNDROME, aids, sida, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-1 stage 6), Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (disorder), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (diagnosis), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Acquired immune deficiency syndr, Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome NOS, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, unspecified, IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME ACQUIRED AIDS, Acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection syndrome NOS (disorder), ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, AIDS, AIDS, ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [Disease/Finding], AIDS disorders, autoimmune deficiency syndrome, Acquired immunodeficiency syndromes, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS - Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, Immunodeficiency due to human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired; immunodeficiency syndrome, Acquired immune defic. synd., Acquired immune defic. syndr., Acquired Immune Deficiency, Autoimmune deficiency syndrome, Acquired Immun-Deficiency Synd, acquired immun-deficiency synd
German ERWORBENES IMMUNDEFEKTSYNDROM, erworbenes Autoimmunmangelsyndrom, erworbenes Autoimmunmangelsyndr, erworbenes Autoimmunmangelsyndrom, unspezifisch, erworbenes Immunmangelsyndrom NNB, Autoimmunmangelsyndrom, Erworbene Immundefektsyndrome, erworbenes Immunmangelsyndrom, AIDS, Erworbenes Immundefektsyndrom, Immundefektsyndrom, erworbenes, Immunologisches Defektsyndrom, erworbenes
Italian Sindromi da immunodeficienza acquisita, Sindrome da immunodeficienza acquisita, NAS, Sindrome da deficienza autoimmunitaria, Sindrome da immunodeficienza acquisita, non specificata, AIDS, Sindrome da deficienza immunologica acquisita, Sindrome da immunodeficienza acquisita
Spanish SIDA - síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA) (trastorno), síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA), Síndrome de autoinmunodeficiencia, Síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida no especificado, Síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida NEOM, Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida, Sindrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida, SIDA (trastorno), Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, SINDROME INMUNODEFICIENCIA ADQUIR, SIDA, síndrome de infección por el HIV, síndrome de infección por el VIH, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, síndrome infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana adquirida, SAI (trastorno), síndrome infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana adquirida, SAI, Síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, Síndromes de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, Síndrome de Deficiencia Inmunológica Adquirida, Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida, Sindrome de Deficiencia Inmunologica Adquirida, Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida
Dutch acquired immunodeficiency syndrome NAO, auto-immuun deficiëntiesyndroom, AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, niet-gespecificeerd, verworven; immunodeficiëntie syndroom, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, verworven immunodeficiëntiesyndromen, Aids, Immunodeficiëntiesyndroom, verworven, Verworven immunodeficiëntiesyndroom
French Syndr d'immunodéficience acquise, Syndrome d'immunodéficience acquise SAI, Syndrome d'immunodéficience humaine acquise, Syndrome d'immunodéficience acquise, non précisée, Syndrome de déficience auto-immune, SYND D'IMMUNODEFICIENCE ACQUISE, Syndrome immunodéficitaire acquis, Syndrome immuno-déficitaire acquis, Syndromes d'immunodéficience acquise, SIDA, Syndrome d'immunodéficience acquise
Portuguese Síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida, Síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida NE, Síndrome de deficiência auto-imune, Síndrome da Deficiência Imunológica Adquirida, Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida, SINDROME DE IMUNODEFIC. ADQUIRIDA, Síndroma de imunodeficiência adquirida, Síndromes de imunodeficiência adquirida, AIDS, SIDA, Síndrome de Deficiência Imunológica Adquirida, Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida
Japanese 自己免疫不全症候群, 後天性免疫不全症候群NOS, 後天性免疫不全症候群、詳細不明, ジコメンエキフゼンショウコウグン, コウテンセイメンエキフゼンショウコウグンショウサイフメイ, コウテンセイメンエキフゼンショウコウグン, エイズ, コウテンセイメンエキフゼンショウコウグンNOS, 免疫不全症候群-後天性, エイズ, 後天性免疫不全症候群
Swedish AIDS
Czech syndrom získané imunodeficience, AIDS, Syndrom získané imunodeficience, Syndrom získané imunodeficience, blíže neurčený, Syndromy získané imunodeficience, Syndrom autoimunitní imunodeficience, Syndrom získané imunodeficience NOS
Finnish Immuunikato
Russian SINDROM PRIOBRETENNOGO IMMUNODEFITSITA, SPID, CHELOVECHESKII T-LIMFOTSITARNYI VIRUS-III, INFEKTSIIA, IMMUNODEFITSITA SINDROM PRIOBRETENNYI, ИММУНОДЕФИЦИТА СИНДРОМ ПРИОБРЕТЕННЫЙ, СИНДРОМ ПРИОБРЕТЕННОГО ИММУНОДЕФИЦИТА, СПИД, ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКИЙ T-ЛИМФОЦИТАРНЫЙ ВИРУС-III, ИНФЕКЦИЯ
Croatian SINDROM STEČENE IMUNODEFICIJENCIJE
Polish Zespół nabytego upośledzenia odporności, SIDA, AIDS, Zespół nabytego braku odporności
Hungarian Szerzett immunhiány syndromák, AIDS, szerzett immunhiány szindróma k.m.n., Szerzett immunhiány szindróma, Szerzett immunhiány szindróma, nem meghatározott, Autoimmun hiány-syndroma, szerzett immunhiányos szindróma

Ontology: HIV Infections (C0019693)

Definition (MSHFRE) Infections par le virus de l'immuno-déficience humaine. Elles comprennent aussi bien une séropositivité asymptomatique qu'une maladie symptomatique (ARC), ou qu'un syndrome de l'immunodéficience acquise (SIDA).
Definition (NCI) An infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.
Definition (MSH) Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Definition (CSP) any state of infection accompanied by evidence of HIV in the body (positive test for HIV genome, cDNA, proteins, antigens, or antibodies); may be medically asymptomatic or symptomatic; use AIDS when appropriate.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D015658
ICD9 042, 042-042.99
ICD10 B20-B24.9 , B24, B20, B20-B20
SnomedCT 123321001, 187438009, 187453001, 86406008, 186705005
English HTLV III Infections, HTLV III LAV Infections, HTLV-III Infections, HTLV-III-LAV Infections, Infection, HIV, Infection, HTLV-III, Infection, HTLV-III-LAV, Infections, HIV, Infections, HTLV-III, Infections, HTLV-III-LAV, T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III Infections, Human, DISEASES DUE TO IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, NOS, HIV DISEASE, HIV disease, Human immunodeficiency virus disease, Unspecified HIV disease, Unspecified human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease, [X]HIV disease, [X]Human immunodeficiency virus disease, [X]Unspecified HIV disease, [X]Unspecified human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease, LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE III INFECTIONS HUMAN T, HTLV III INFECT, HTLV WIII LAV INFECTIONS, HTLV WIII INFECTIONS, T LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE III INFECT HUMAN, HIV INFECT, HTLV III LAV INFECT, HTLV-III/LAV infection, NOS, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, HIV seropositivity or positivity, E-363-365 DISEASES DUE TO IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (diagnosis), hiv infection, HTLV-III/LAV infection (disorder), HTLV-III/LAV infection, human T-lymphotropic virus 3 (HTLV-III) infection (diagnosis), lymphadenopathy-associated virus (diagnosis), lymphadenopathy-associated virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 3 (HTLV-III) infection, HIV infection NOS, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, unspecified, Human immunodeficiency virus syndrome, HIV INFECTION, [X]Unspecified human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease (disorder), [X]Human immunodeficiency virus disease (disorder), Human immuno virus dis, Human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease, HIV Infections [Disease/Finding], Infection;HIV, HIV infections, Human immunodeficiency virus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, Human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease (B20), HTLV-III Infection, HTLV-III-LAV Infection, T Lymphotropic Virus Type III Infections, Human, HIV infection, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, HIV - Human immunodeficiency virus infection, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (disorder), HIV disease; disease (i.e. caused by HIV disease), HIV disease; infection, disease (or disorder); HIV disease (resulting from HIV disease), disease (or disorder); resulting from HIV disease, human immunodeficiency virus; disease, immunodeficiency virus disease; human, infection; HIV disease as cause, HTLV-III/LAV infection -RETIRED-, HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV Infection, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS [HIV] INFECTION, HIV Infections
Italian Infezione da virus dell'immunodeficienza umana, Malattia da virus dell'immunodeficienza umana, Infezione da virus dell'immunodeficienza umana, NAS, Infezione da virus dell'immunodeficienza umana (HIV), non specificata, Virus dell'immunodeficienza umana (HIV), sindrome, Infezioni da virus di tipo III T-linfotropo umano, Infezioni da HTLV-III-LAV, Infezioni da HTLV-III, Infezioni da HIV
Dutch HIV-ziekte, humaan immunodeficiëntievirusinfectie, niet-gespecificeerd, HIV-infectie NAO, humaan immunodeficiëntievirussyndroom, HIV-ziekte; aandoening (als gevolg), HIV-ziekte; infectie, Humaan Immunodeficiëntievirus; ziekte, aandoening; HIV-ziekte (als gevolg van HIV-ziekte), aandoening; als gevolg van HIV-ziekte, immunodeficiëntievirus-ziekte; humaan, infectie; HIV-ziekte als oorzaak, Niet gespecificeerd ziekte door Humaan Immunodeficiëntievirus [HIV], HIV-infectie, HIV-infecties, HTLV-III-LAV-infectie, HTLV-III-infectie, Infecties, HIV-
French Infection à virus de l'immunodéficience humaine, non précisée, Syndrome du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine, Affection VIH, Infection à VIH SAI, Infections au VIH, Infection à VIH, Infections HIV, Infections HTLV-III-LAV, Infections HTLV-III, Infections à VIH
German Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus-Syndrom, HIV-Infektion NNB, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infektion, unspezifisch, HIV-Erkrankung, Nicht naeher bezeichnete HIV-Krankheit [Humane Immundefizienz-Viruskrankheit], LYMPHOTROPES VIRUS TYP III INFEKTIONEN HUMANE T, HTLV WIII INFEKTIONEN, HTLV WIII LAV INFEKTIONEN, HIV-Infektionen, HIV-Infektion, HTLV-III-Infektionen, HTLV-III-LAV-Infektionen, T-lymphotropes Virus Typ III-Infektionen, humane
Portuguese Infecção HIV NE, Síndrome HIV, Infecção a HIV NE, Doença a HIV, Infecção por HIV, Infecções por HIV, Infecções por HTLV-III, Infecções por Vírus Tipo III T-Linfotrópico Humano, Infecções por HTLV-III-LAV
Spanish Síndrome del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, Enfermedad por VIH, Infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, no especificada, Infección por VIH NEOM, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, [X]enfermedad por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, [X]enfermedad por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), sin otra especificación (trastorno), [X]enfermedad por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (trastorno), [X]enfermedad por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), sin otra especificación, [X]enfermedad por HIV, [X]enfermedad por VIH, infección por HIV, infección por HTLV - III/LAV - RETIRADO - (concepto no activo), infección por HTLV - III/LAV - RETIRADO -, infección por VIH, infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (trastorno), infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, infección por virus linfotrópico de células T humano, tipo III / virus asociado a linfadenopatía, infección por virus linfotrópico de células T humano, tipo III / virus asociado a linfoadenopatía, Infección por VIH, Infecciones del Virus Tipo III T-Linfotrópico Humano, Infecciones por HTLV-III, Infecciones por VIH, Infecciones por HTLV-III-LAV, Infecciones del Virus Tipo III T-Linfotropico Humano
Japanese HIV感染NOS, HIV感染, HIV疾患, ヒト免疫不全ウイルス症候群, HIVカンセン, ヒトメンエキフゼンウイルスショウコウグン, HIVシッカン, HIVカンセンNOS, AIDSウイルス感染症, HIV感染症, HTLV-3型Lav感染症, HTLV-3型感染症, エイズウイルス感染症, ヒトTリンパ球好性ウイルス3型感染症, ヒト免疫不全ウイルス感染症
Swedish HIV-infektioner
Czech HIV infekce, HIV infekce, blíže neurčená, Onemocnění HIV, HIV infekce NOS, Syndrom příznaků při HIV infekci
Finnish HIV-infektiot
Russian T-LIMFOTROPNYI VIRUS III TIPA CHELOVECHESKII, INFEKTSII, VICH INFEKTSII, HTLV-III-LAV INFEKTSII, HTLV-III INFEKTSII, HTLV-III-LAV ИНФЕКЦИИ, HTLV-III ИНФЕКЦИИ, T-ЛИМФОТРОПНЫЙ ВИРУС III ТИПА ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКИЙ, ИНФЕКЦИИ, ВИЧ ИНФЕКЦИИ
Korean 상세불명의 인체면역결핍바이러스병
Croatian HIV INFEKCIJE
Polish Zakażenie wirusem typu III T-limfotropowym ludzkim, Zakażenie HIV, Zakażenie HTLV-III, Zakażenie ludzkim wirusem niedoboru odporności
Hungarian Human immunhiány vírus fertőzés, nem meghatározott, HIV fertőzés, HIV betegség, HIV fertőzés k.m.n., Human immunhiány vírus syndroma