II. Causes: Vascular

  1. Venous Insufficiency (painful ulcers, esp. medial ankle)
    1. Venous Stasis Ulcer
  2. Arteriovenous Malformation
  3. Arterial or ischemic causes (punched out ulcer, pale base)
    1. Peripheral Vascular Disease
    2. Buerger's Disease
    3. Raynaud's Syndrome (Raynaud's Phenomenon)
    4. Embolism
  4. Vasculitic Ulcer
    1. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    3. Scleroderma
    4. Polyarteritis
  5. Lymphatic
    1. Lymphangitis
    2. Lymphedema

III. Causes: Infectious

IV. Causes: Dermatitis

  1. Contact Dermatitis or other allergic condition
  2. Bullous Disease

V. Causes: Miscellaneous

  1. Primary or metastatic neoplasm
  2. Trauma
  3. Drug-induced
    1. Warfarin
    2. Ergotism
    3. Injection ulcer

VI. Causes: Peripheral Neuropathy or Postitioning

VII. Causes: Systemic Disease

VIII. References

  1. Bello (2000) JAMA 283(6): 716-8 [PubMed]
  2. Degreef (1998) Dermatol Clin 16(2): 365-75 [PubMed]
  3. Findlay (1996) Am Fam Physician 54(5): 1519-28 [PubMed]
  4. Habif (1996) Clinical Derm, Mosby, p. 810-13
  5. Knapp (1999) Pediatr Clin North Am 46(6):1201-13 [PubMed]
  6. Krasner (1995) Prevention Management Pressure Ulcers
  7. Lewis (1996) Med-Surg Nursing, Mosby, p. 199-200
  8. Lueckenotte (1996) Gerontologic Nurs., Mosby, p. 800-7
  9. PUGP (1995) Am Fam Physician 51(5):1207-22 [PubMed]
  10. PUGP (1994) Pressure Ulcer Treatment, AHCPR 95-0653
  11. Way (1991) Current Surgical, Lange, p.95-108

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