II. Epidemiology

  1. Not banned by IOC or NCAA
  2. Not detected by testing

III. Physiology

  1. High energy cells (skeletal muscle) use Creatine
  2. Creatine acts as phosphate donor to form ATP
  3. Muscle stores enough for 10 seconds high intensity

IV. Sources

  1. Synthesized by Liver, Kidney, Pancreas
  2. Exogenous dietary sources (Meat or fish)
    1. Typical U.S. dietary intake: 1-2 grams per day
  3. Creatine Supplement Typical Use by power sport athletes
    1. Loading: 5 grams four times daily for 5 to 7 days
    2. Maintenance: 5 grams per day

V. Efficacy

  1. Mixed results from randomized trials
  2. Studies find strength and mass increase (men and women)
    1. Beneficial in high intensity sports (bursts of activity <30 seconds)
      1. Football
      2. Weight lifting
    2. Variable effect in sprinters
      1. Endurance time improved in the lab
      2. Benefit not found in field performance
    3. Not effective in endurance sports
      1. No effect in Running and swimming
    4. References
      1. Branch (2003) Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 13(2): 198-226 [PubMed]

VI. Adverse Effects

  1. Weight gain (short-term, <1 week following intake)
  2. Probably safe
  3. Renal Failure in patient with Nephrotic Syndrome
    1. No renal effects in later study of healthy men
  4. Anecdotal reports of assorted conditions reported
  5. Adverse effects beyond 3 months has not been studied

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Ontology: Creatine (C0010286)

Definition (NCI) An endogenous amino acid derivative produced by vertebrate animals and occurring primarily in muscle cells. Creatine is important for energy storage; it is phosphorylated to creatine phosphate, which serves as a phosphate donor in the conversion of ADP to ATP and supplies energy necessary for muscle contraction. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A substance that is made by the body and used to store energy. It is being studied in the treatment of weight loss related to cancer. It is derived from the amino acid arginine.
Definition (MSH) An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Definition (CSP) amino acid that is synthesized in vertebrate tissues; in muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine, an important storage form of high energy phosphate; excreted as creatinine.
Definition (PDQ) An endogenous amino acid derivative produced by vertebrate animals and occurring primarily in muscle cells. Creatine is important for energy storage; it is phosphorylated to creatine phosphate, which serves as a phosphate donor in the conversion of ADP to ATP and supplies energy necessary for muscle contraction. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=361777&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=361777&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C37937" NCI Thesaurus)
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D003401
SnomedCT 14804005
LNC LP15509-0, LP32032-2, MTHU005167
English Creatine, Glycine, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-methyl-, Creatine [Chemical/Ingredient], creatines, CREATINE, creatine, Creatine (substance)
Swedish Kreatin
Czech kreatin
Finnish Kreatiini
Russian KREATIN, КРЕАТИН
Croatian KREATIN
Polish Kreatyna
Spanish creatina (sustancia), creatina, Creatina
French Créatine
German Creatin, Kreatin
Italian Creatina
Portuguese Creatina