II. Arterial Blood source

III. Conditions invalidating or modifying ABG Results

  1. Delayed analysis
    1. Iced Sample maintains values for 1-2 hours
    2. Un-iced sample quickly becomes invalid
      1. PaCO2 rises 3-10 mmHg/hour
      2. PaO2 falls at a rate related to initial value
      3. pH falls modestly
  2. Excessive Heparin
    1. Dilutional effect on results
    2. Decreases bicarbonate and PaCO2
  3. Large Air bubbles not expelled from sample
    1. PaO2 rises 0-30 mmHg
    2. PaCO2 may fall slightly
  4. Fever or Hypothermia
    1. Machine Temperature approaches 37 C
    2. Patient Temperature shifts oxyhemoglobin curve
  5. Hyperventilation or breath holding (due to anxiety)
    1. May lead to erroneous lab results

IV. Primary and Secondary Acid Base Disorders

  1. Respiratory Acidosis (pCO2 increases)
    1. Compensated by Metabolic Alkalosis (HCO3 increases)
  2. Respiratory Alkalosis (pCO2 decreases)
    1. Compensated by Metabolic Acidosis (HCO3 decreases)
  3. Metabolic Acidosis (HCO3 decreases)
    1. Compensated by Respiratory Alkalosis (PCO2 decreases)
  4. Metabolic Alkalosis (HCO3 increases)
    1. Compensated by Respiratory Acidosis (PCO2 increases)

V. Interpretation: pH

  1. Normal arterial pH = 7.36 to 7.44
  2. Metabolic Conditions are suggested if
    1. pH changes in the same direction as pCO2
    2. pH is abnormal but pCO2 remains unchanged
  3. Metabolic Conditions related changes in Bicarbonate
    1. Increase pH by 0.01 (with PaCO2 unchanged)
      1. Bicarbonate increases 0.67 meq/L
    2. Decrease pH by 0.01 (with paCO2 unchanged)
      1. Bicarbonate decreases 0.67 meq/L

VI. Interpretation pH

VII. References

  1. Arieff (1993) J Crit Illn 8(2): 224-46
  2. Narins (1982) Am J Med 72:496
  3. Narins (1980) Medicine 59:161-95
  4. Ghosh (2000) Fed Pract p. 23-33
  5. Rutecki (Dec 1997) Consultant, p. 3067-74
  6. Rutecki (Jan 1998) Consultant, p. 131-42

Images: Related links to external sites (from Google)

Ontology: Blood Gas Analysis (C0005800)

Definition (MSH) Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
MSH D001784
SnomedCT 144274006, 167032005, 278297009, 167018008, 270009008
English Analyses, Blood Gas, Analysis, Blood Gas, Blood Gas Analyses, Blood Gas Analysis, Gas Analyses, Blood, Gas Analysis, Blood, Blood gases NOS, BLOOD GAS ANAL, ANAL BLOOD GAS, blood gas analyses (lab test), blood gas analyses, Blood gases NOS (procedure), Blood gas studies, analyse blood gas, Test;blood gas analysis, blood gases, analysis blood gas, blood gas measurement, blood gase, blood gas measurements, Blood gases, Blood gas analysis, Blood gas levels, BGA - Blood gas analysis, BG - Blood gases, Blood gas analysis (procedure), Blood gas measurement (procedure), Blood gas measurement, Gases - blood, blood gas analysis
Italian Gas ematici, Gas ematici NAS, Emogasanalisi
Dutch bloedgassen NAO, bloedgassen, Analyse, bloedgas-, Bloedgasanalyse
French Gaz du sang SAI, Analyse des gaz du sang, Gazométrie, Gaz hémotoxique
German Blutgase NNB, Blutgase, Blutgasanalyse
Portuguese Gases do sangue NE, Gases sanguíneos, Gasometria
Spanish Gasometría NEOM, Blood gases, Gases - blood, Blood gases NOS, análisis de gases en sangre (procedimiento), análisis de gases en sangre, determinación de gases en sangre, SAI (procedimiento), determinación de gases en sangre, SAI, determinación de niveles de gases en sangre, medición de gases en sangre (procedimiento), medición de gases en sangre, Gasometría, Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre, Analisis de los Gases de la Sangre
Japanese 血液ガス, 血液ガスNOS, ケツエキガス, ケツエキガスNOS, 血液ガス分析
Swedish Blodgasanalys
Czech krevní plyny - analýza, Krevní plyny, Krevní plyny NOS
Finnish Verikaasuanalyysi
Russian GAZOV KROVI ANALIZ, ГАЗОВ КРОВИ АНАЛИЗ
Croatian KRVNI PLINOVI, ANALIZA
Polish Gazometria krwi, Analiza gazów krwi
Hungarian Vérgázok, Vérgázok k.m.n.

Ontology: Analysis of arterial blood gases and pH (C0150411)

Definition (NCI) Measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate in the blood.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
ICD9 89.65
SnomedCT 389623009, 390355006, 60170009, 91308007
English Analysis of arterial blood gas (oxygen saturation, pO2, pCO2, CO2, pH); rest only, ABG - Arter blood gas analysis, arterial blood gases (lab test), arterial blood gases, Arterial blood gas analysis (procedure), Arterial Blood Gas Measurement, ABG, Analysis of arterial blood gases and pH, ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS, Blood Gas Analysis, Blood Gas Measurement, Arterial bld gas measure, arterial blood gas, arterial blood gas analysis, analysis arterial blood gas, arterial blood gase, blood gas arterial, Blood gases, arterial measurement, ABGs measurement, Gases, arterial measurement, ABG - Arterial blood gas analysis, Arterial blood gas analysis, Arterial blood gases, Analysis of arterial blood gases and pH (procedure), Blood gases, arterial measurement (procedure), Measurement of systemic arterial blood gases
Spanish análisis de gases en sangre arterial y PH, Arterial blood gas analysis, medición arterial de gases en sangre (procedimiento), medición arterial de gases en sangre, medición arterial de gases, análisis de gases en sangre arterial y PH (procedimiento), análisis de gases en sangre arterial y pH (procedimiento), análisis de gases en sangre arterial y pH

Ontology: A1BG gene (C1412045)

Concepts Gene or Genome (T028)
English alpha-1-B glycoprotein, A1B, ALPHA-1-B-GLYCOPROTEIN, GAB, A1BG, ABG, A1BG gene