II. General

  1. No Bovine milk products until older than age 1 year
    1. No Whole Milk
    2. No infant formula prepared from evaporated milk

III. Types: Calories

  1. Term infant formula: 68 kcals/dl (20 kcal/oz)
  2. Enriched infant formula (home, >1.8 kg, >34 weeks): 73 Kcals/dl (22 Kcal/oz)
  3. Preterm Infant formula (hospital <1.8 kg, <34 weeks): 80 Kcals/dl (24 kcal/oz)

IV. Types: Proteins

  1. Overview
    1. Whey Protein (more in human Breast Milk)
      1. Contains much more cystine
      2. Contains much less Tyrosine and Phenylalanine
    2. Protein intake crucial
      1. Dietary variation affects neurotransmitter levels
  2. Human Breast Milk
    1. Total Protein: 0.9 to 1.0 grams per dl
    2. Whey to Casein ratio: 70:30
  3. Infant Formula
    1. Total Protein: 1.5 grams per dl
    2. Whey to Casein ratio: 18:82
  4. Bovine Whole Milk (unmodified)
    1. Total Protein: 3.5 grams per dl
    2. Marked Cystine deficiency

V. Types: Carbohydrates

  1. Lactose (Glucose and Galactose) is major source
    1. Lactose is required carbohydrate in first year
    2. Lactose needs reduced to minimal after first year
  2. Galactose component of brain
    1. Cerebrosides (myelin components)
    2. Gangliosides (neural components)

VI. Types: Lipids

  1. Overview
    1. Linoleic Acid is an essential Fatty Acid
      1. Present in both Breast Milk and infant formula
    2. Requirements increased in Preterm Infants
      1. Preterm Infants have decreased lipid storage
      2. Adipose tissue is laid down just before term
      3. Affects Temperature instability
    3. Avoid excessive lipid intake
      1. Obesity pattern may be initiated
  2. Human Breast Milk
    1. Increased long chain unsaturated acids (Oleic acids)
    2. Linoleic Acid increased much more than Bovine milk
    3. Cholesterol increased much more than Bovine milk
      1. Newborns require Cholesterol for growth
    4. Lipid content responds to maternal dietary intake
  3. Bovine Milk and infant formula
    1. Contains saturated Fatty Acids
    2. Contains unsaturated fats
      1. Bovine milk modified during manufacturing
      2. Bovine milk fat replaced with vegetable oil
      3. Increase infants ability to absorb lipids
    3. Contains short chain Fatty Acids
      1. Not present in human Breast Milk

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