II. Indication

  1. Pediatric Gait Abnormality
  2. Intoeing evaluation

III. Technique

  1. Observe child walk
  2. Evaluate foot long axis relative to line of walking
    1. Imagine line from heel to second to third toe
    2. Estimate angle of foot deviating from this line

IV. Interpretation: Normal rotational angles (varies by age)

  1. Age 1: -4 to 19 degrees (mean 7 degrees)
  2. Age 3: -4 to 17 degrees (mean 6 degrees)
  3. Age 5: -4 to 15 degrees (mean 5 degrees)
  4. Age 7: -4 to 15 degrees (mean 5 degrees)
  5. Age 9: -4 to 14 degrees (mean 4 degrees)

V. Interpretation: Abnormal

  1. Excessively negative Foot Progression Angle (FPA)
    1. See In-Toeing
  2. Excessively positive Foot Progression Angle (FPA)
    1. See Out-toeing

VI. References

  1. Schmale (2003) AAFP Board Review, Seattle

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