II. Epidemiology

  1. Affects more men than women
  2. Prevalence
    1. Children: 1-2% (Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy)
    2. Adult Males
      1. Adults: 9%
      2. Elderly: 27%
    3. Adult Females
      1. Adults: 4%
      2. Elderly: 19%

III. Types

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    1. Cessation of air flow despite respiratory effort
    2. Obstruction in low pharynx
      1. Between base of Tongue and Larynx
  2. Central Sleep Apnea
    1. Cessation of respiratory effort
    2. Effects diaphragmatic or intercostal effort
  3. Mixed Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Central Sleep Apnea

IV. Complications

  1. Hypertension
  2. Bradycardia
  3. Asystole
  4. Ventricular irritability
  5. Nocturnal sudden death
  6. Right Heart Failure
  7. Pulmonary Hypertension

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Ontology: Sleep Apnea Syndromes (C0037315)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses can last from a few seconds to minutes. They may occur 30 times or more an hour.

The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or become blocked during sleep. Normal breathing starts again with a snort or choking sound. People with sleep apnea often snore loudly. However, not everyone who snores has sleep apnea.

You are more at risk for sleep apnea if you are overweight, male, or have a family history or small airways. Children with enlarged tonsils may also get it.

Doctors diagnose sleep apnea based on medical and family histories, a physical exam, and sleep study results.

When your sleep is interrupted throughout the night, you can be drowsy during the day. People with sleep apnea are at higher risk for car crashes, work-related accidents, and other medical problems. If you have it, it is important to get treatment. Lifestyle changes, mouthpieces, surgery, and breathing devices can treat sleep apnea in many people.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Definition (MSHCZE) Porucha spánku, při které se v dýchání objevují dlouhé přestávky apnoe vedoucí k zhoršenému okysličení krve. Apnoe je přerušení dechu na dobu 10 sekund a déle, má charakter centrální (chybějí dýchací pohyby), periferní (obstrukční pohyby jsou přítomny) či smíšený. Stav je spojen s nápadně hlasitým chrápáním. Ve dne trpí pacienti výraznou spavostí a mohou usnout i při důležitých činnostech vč. řízení motorového vozidla. Komplikací mohou být rovněž následná onemocnění krevního oběhu. Příkladem tohoto nikoliv vzácného syndromu je Pickwickův syndrom. Bývá rovněž ronchopatie. Tyto stavy vyžadují odborné neurologické, resp. plicní vyšetření. Používá se polysomnografie, EKG, měření krevních plynů. Léčba má složku režimovou (redukce hmotnosti, vyloučení alkoholu, hypnotik, kouření, úprava polohy při spánku), oxygenoterapie, zajištění přetlaku při dýchání během spánku (CPAP, BiPAP), chirurgické výkony v oblasti faryngu aj. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Cessation of breathing for short periods during sleep. It is classified as obstructive, central, or mixed obstructive-central.
Definition (NCI) Cessation of breathing for short periods during sleep. It is classified as obstructive, central, or mixed obstructive-central. It can occur at any age but it is more frequent in people over forty. Risk factors include male sex and obesity.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by cessation of breathing for short periods during sleep.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A sleep disorder that is marked by pauses in breathing of 10 seconds or more during sleep, and causes unrestful sleep. Symptoms include loud or abnormal snoring, daytime sleepiness, irritability, and depression.
Definition (CSP) cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or more during sleep and consequent oxygen desaturation.
Definition (MSH) Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Definition (PSY) Temporary absence of breathing or prolonged respiratory failure occurring during sleep.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D012891
ICD9 780.57
ICD10 G47.3 , G47.30
SnomedCT 313246000, 73430006, 155614007, 206750008, 196166002, 194441007
English Apnea Syndrome, Sleep, Apnea Syndromes, Sleep, Apnea, Sleep, Apneas, Sleep, Sleep Apnea Syndromes, Sleep Apneas, SLEEP APNEA, Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Breathing, Sleep-Disordered, Sleep Disordered Breathing, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, [D]Sleep apnea syndrome (context-dependent category), Sleep apnea syndromes, SLEEP APNOEA, SLEEP APNOEA SYNDROME, SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME, sleep disordered breathing, periods of not breathing while asleep (sleep apnea), sleep hypopnea (diagnosis), periods of not breathing while asleep (symptom), sleep apnea, sleep hypopnea, periods of not breathing while asleep, sleep apnea (diagnosis), [D]Sleep apnea syndrome, [D]Sleep apnoea syndrome, Sleep apnoea syndromes, Hypopnea, Sleep, Sleep Hypopnea, Hypopneas, Sleep, Sleep Hypopneas, Sleep apnea (disorder), Sleep apnea (finding), Sleep apnea NOS, Sleep Apnea Syndromes [Disease/Finding], Sleep apnea, unspecified, Sleep apnoea, unspecified, sleep apnea syndrome, sleep apnea syndromes, breathing disorder during sleeping, sleep apnoea syndrome, Sleep apnoeas, Sleep-disordered Breathing, Sleep-disordered breathing, Sleep Apnea, Sleep apnoea (disorder), Syndrome sleep apnea, [D]Syndrome sleep apnea, Apnea syndrome, Apnoea syndrome, [D]Sleep apnea syndrome (situation), Syndrome sleep apnoea, [D]Syndrome sleep apnoea, Sleep apnea syndrome, Sleep apnea, Sleep apnoea, Sleep hypopnea, Sleep hypopnoea, Sleep apnoea syndrome, SAS - Sleep apnea syndrome, SAS - Sleep apnoea syndrome, sleep; apnea, apnea; sleep, Sleep apnea, NOS, Unspecified sleep apnea, sleep apnoea
Portuguese APNEIA DO SONO, Apneia do sono, Síndrome de apneia, Síndromes de apneia do sono, SINDROME DE APNEIA DO SONO, Síndromes da Apneia do Sono, Apneia do Sono, Apneias do sono, Síndrome de apneia do sono, Respiração Desordenada Durante o Sono
Spanish APNEA DEL SUENO, Síndromes de apnea del sueño, Síndrome apnéico, Apnea del sueño, Síndrome de apnea, [D]síndrome de apnea del sueño (categoría dependiente del contexto), apnea del sueño (trastorno), apnea del sueño (hallazgo), [D]síndrome de apnea del sueño (situación), [D]síndrome de apnea del sueño, Hipersomnio con Respiración Periódica, apnea del sueño, Síndrome de apnea del sueño, Trastornos apnéicos del sueño, Alteraciones Respiratorias Durante el Sueño, Apnea del Sueño, Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño
Italian Apnee del sonno, Sindrome da apnea del sonno, Sindromi da apnea nel sonno, Apnea del sonno, Sindrome da apnea, Apnea da sonno, Disturbi respiratori sonno-correlati, Ipopnea del sonno, Sindromi di apnea del sonno
Dutch slaap apneu, apneusyndroom, slaap apneu syndromen, apnoe; slaap, slaap; apnoe, Slaapapnoe, slaap apneu syndroom, slaapapneus, Apnoe, slaap-, Slaap-apnoesyndromen, Slaap-apnoesyndroom, Syndromen, Slaap-apnoe-, Syndroom, Slaap-apnoe-
French Syndrome d'apnée du sommeil, Apnée du sommeil, SAS (Syndrome d'Apnées du Sommeil), Syndrome d'apnée, APNEE DU SOMMEIL, SYNDROME D'APNEES DU SOMMEIL, Syndrome d'apnées du sommeil, Apnées du sommeil, Syndromes d'apnées du sommeil
German Schlafapnoe-Syndrome, Schlafapnoe, SCHLAFAPNOE, Apnoe-Syndrom, Schlafapnoe-Syndrom, Schlafapnoen, Apnoe, Schlaf-, Schlafapnoesyndrome, Undine-Syndrom, Schlafgestörte Atmung
Japanese 無呼吸症候群, スイミンジムコキュウ, スイミンジムコキュウショウコウグン, ムコキュウショウコウグン, 無呼吸-睡眠時, 睡眠障害呼吸, 睡眠時無呼吸, 異常呼吸睡眠症, 睡眠時無呼吸症候群
Swedish Sömnapnesyndrom
Czech syndromy spánkové apnoe, Spánková apnoe, Spánkové apnoe, Syndromy spánkové apnoe, Syndrom apnoe, Syndrom spánkové apnoe, Apnoe syndrom, poruchy dýchání ve spánku, syndrom spánkové apnoe, spánková apnoe, spánková hypopnoe, spánkový apnoický syndrom
Finnish Uniapnea-oireyhtymät
Russian APNOE SINDROMY VO SNE, GIPERSOMNIIA S PERIODICHESKIM DYKHANIEM, APNOE, SON, АПНОЭ СИНДРОМЫ ВО СНЕ, АПНОЭ, СОН, ГИПЕРСОМНИЯ С ПЕРИОДИЧЕСКИМ ДЫХАНИЕМ
Korean 수면성 무호흡
Croatian APNOIČNI SINDROMI U SNU
Polish Zespół bezdechu we śnie, Zaburzenia oddychania podczas snu, Sen z bezdechami, Zespół bezdechu sennego
Hungarian Alvási apnoék, Alvási apnoe syndromák, Alvási apnoe tünetegyüttes, Apnoe syndroma, Apnoe-syndroma, Alvási apnoe, Alvási apnoe syndroma
Norwegian Obstruktiv søvnapnesyndrom, Søvnapné