II. Causes: False Positive

III. Causes: Occult Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (29-56%)

  1. See Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
  2. Erosive Gastritis (3-16%)
  3. Gastric Ulcer (4-6%)
  4. Gastric Carcinoma or Esophageal Cancer (1-4%)
  5. Esophageal Varices
  6. Gastroesophageal Reflux or esophagitis (6-18%)
  7. Hiatal Hernia (with Cameron's Erosions)
  8. Gastric vascular malformation or angiodysplasia (1-8%)
    1. Dieulafoy's Lesion (dilated vessel in mucosal lesion)
    2. Antral vascular ectasia (Watermelon Stomach)

IV. Causes: Occult Small Intestinal Bleeding (29-52%)

V. Causes: Occult Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding (20-30%)

  1. See Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding
  2. Intestinal Polyps or adenomas that are typically >1 to 1.5 cm (5-14%)
  3. Colon Cancer (5-11%)
  4. Angiodysplasia (1-9%)
  5. Colitis (1-2%)
    1. Ischemic Colitis
    2. Ulcerative Colitis
  6. Diverticular Bleeding

VI. Causes: Bleeding from a rectal source

VII. Causes: Miscellaneous Source

  1. Infection
    1. Amebiasis
    2. Ascariasis
    3. Cytomegalovirus
    4. Hookworm
    5. Strongyloides
    6. Tuberculosis (Tuberculous Enterocolitis)
    7. Whipworm
  2. Malignancy
    1. Colon Cancer
    2. Kaposi's Sarcoma
    3. Lymphoma
    4. Leiomyoma
    5. Carcinoid
    6. Melanoma
  3. Vascular
    1. Aortoenteric fistula
    2. Hemangioma
    3. Radiation injury
    4. Vascular ectasia

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