II. Pathophysiology

  1. Reflex Neurovascular Dystrophy
  2. Related to reflex Sympathetic stimulation
  3. Associated with recent acute medical illness
    1. Myocardial Infarction
    2. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
    3. Respiratory disease

III. Epidemiology

  1. Age over 50 years more commonly affected

IV. Symptoms

  1. Shoulder Pain and swelling
  2. Shoulder stiffness
  3. Vasomotor phenomena in involved extremity

V. Differential Diagnosis

VI. Management

  1. Active Exercise program
    1. Shoulder Range of Motion Exercises
    2. Physical Therapy
  2. Analgesics
  3. Short trial of Prednisone 10-20 mg/day
  4. Stellate Ganglion block

VII. Prognosis

  1. Resolves spontaneously over several months

VIII. Complications

  1. Frozen Shoulder (common)

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