II. Definition

  1. Gingiva (gums) abuts tooth neck

III. Preparation

  1. Patient closes teeth
  2. Retract cheeks and lips

IV. Findings: Normal Gingiva

  1. Gingiva color is pink/pale red and stippled
  2. Sharp interdental papilla
  3. Shallow (1-2mm) crevices between gums and teeth
  4. Teeth seat firmly in bony sockets

V. Findings: Abnormal Gingiva

  1. Gingivitis (Plaque, calculus, food accretion)
  2. Periodontitis (Pyorrhea)
  3. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
  4. Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
  5. Gingival Hyperplasia or Enlargement
  6. Epulis (Localized Gingival enlargement)
    1. Most often caused by inflammation
    2. Rule out neoplasia
  7. Gingival Erosions, bullae, atrophy, erythema
    1. Causes: autoimmune, mucocutaneous, and benign disease
    2. Biopsy if etiology not clear
  8. Lead or Bismuth Line
    1. Bluish or Black Line on gums 1mm above gum margin
    2. Seen in Chronic Lead or Bismuth Poisoning
    3. Does not appear where teeth are absent
    4. Distinguish from Melanin pigmentation
  9. Melanin Pigmentation (over tooth margin)
    1. Common brownish pigmentation normal in dark skin
    2. May also be seen in Melanism

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Ontology: Gingival Diseases (C0017563)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

If you have gum disease, you're not alone. Many U.S. adults currently have some form of the disease. It ranges from simple gum inflammation, called gingivitis, to serious damage to the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. In the worst cases, you can lose teeth.

In gingivitis, the gums become red and swollen. They can bleed easily. Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease. You can usually reverse it with daily brushing and flossing and regular cleanings by a dentist or dental hygienist. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis. If you have periodontitis, the gums pull away from the teeth and form pockets that become infected. If not treated, the bones, gums and connective tissue that support the teeth are destroyed.

NIH: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

Definition (CSP) condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the gums or gingiva.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D005882
SnomedCT 266489007, 155642009, 18718003
English Disease, Gingival, Diseases, Gingival, Gingival Disease, gingiva disorder, GINGIVAL DIS, Gingival Diseases, Gingival disorder NOS, Gum disorder, Gingival Diseases [Disease/Finding], gingival diseases, gum disease, gum disorder, Disease;gums, periodontal diseases, gingival disease, periodontal disease, parodontosis, Gum Disease, Gums--Diseases, Gingival disease, Gum disease, Gingival disorder, Gingival disease (disorder), disease (or disorder); gingiva, disease (or disorder); gum, Gingival disease, NOS, Gingival disorder, NOS, Gum disease, NOS
Italian Patologia gengivale, Disturbo della gengiva, Malattia gengivale, Patologia gengivale NAS, Malattie della gengiva
Dutch tandvleesaandoening, tandvleesziekte, gingiva-aandoening NAO, aandoening; gingiva, aandoening; tandvlees, gingiva-aandoening, Gingivaziekte, Ziekte, Gingiva-
French Maladie gingivale, Affection gingivale SAI, Trouble gingival, Gingivopathies, Maladies de la gencive, Maladies des gencives, Maladies gingivales
German Erkrankung der Gingiva, Erkrankungen des Zahnfleischs NNB, Zahnfleischerkrankung, Gingivakrankheiten
Portuguese Doença gengival, Afecção gengival NE, Afecção gengival, Doenças das Gengivas, Doença Gengival, Doenças Gengivais, Perturbação gengival, Doenças da Gengiva
Spanish Enfermedad gingival, Trastorno gingival NEOM, Trastorno de las encías, Enfermedades Gingivales, enfermedad de las encías, enfermedad gingival (trastorno), enfermedad gingival, trastorno gingival, Trastorno gingival, Enfermedades de las Encías
Japanese 歯肉障害NOS, 歯肉障害, シニクショウガイNOS, シニクショウガイ, シニクシッカン, 歯肉症, 歯肉腫, エプーリス, 歯肉疾患
Swedish Tandköttssjukdomar
Finnish Ikenien sairaudet
Russian DESEN BOLEZNI, EPULIS, DESNY, BOLEZNI, ДЕСЕН БОЛЕЗНИ, ДЕСНЫ, БОЛЕЗНИ, ЭПУЛИС
Czech Onemocnění dásně NOS, Porucha dásně, Onemocnění dásně, nemoci dásní, dásně - nemoci, onemocnění dásně, onemocnění gingivy
Croatian Not Translated[Gingival Diseases]
Polish Choroby dziąseł, Nadziąślak
Hungarian Fogíny betegség k.m.n., Fogíny betegség, Fogíny-eltérés, Fogíny betegsége
Norwegian Gingivale sykdommer, Tannkjøttsykdommer

Ontology: Periodontium (C0031104)

Definition (MSH) The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Definition (MSHCZE) závěsný aparát zubu spojující zub s čelistí. Tvoří jej dáseň (gingiva), ozubice (periodont), alveolární kost a zubní cement, které spolu tvoří genetickou, morfologickou a funkční jednotku. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online 2012, http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (CSP) tissues surrounding a tooth.
Concepts Tissue (T024)
MSH D010519
SnomedCT 54308001, 8711009
English Paradentium, Paradentiums, Periodontium, Periodontiums, Structure, Tooth Supporting, Structures, Tooth Supporting, Supporting Structure, Tooth, Supporting Structures, Tooth, Tooth Supporting Structure, Tooth Supporting Structures, Gingival & periodont struct, Parodontium, Parodontiums, periodontium, periodontal tissue, Periodontal tissues, Gum and supporting structure of tooth, Gingival and periodontal structure, Periodontal tissues structure (body structure), Periodontal tissues structure, Structure of gum and supporting structure of tooth (body structure), Structure of gum and supporting structure of tooth, Gum and supporting structure of tooth, NOS, Periodontal tissues, NOS
French Périodonte, Structures de soutien de la dent, Éléments de soutien de la dent, Paradentium, Périodontium, Parodonte
Swedish Parodontium
Finnish Parodontium
Russian PERIODONT, PERITSEMENT, ZUBA PODDERZHIVAIUSHCHIE STRUKTURY, PARADENTSIUM, ЗУБА ПОДДЕРЖИВАЮЩИЕ СТРУКТУРЫ, ПАРАДЕНЦИУМ, ПЕРИОДОНТ, ПЕРИЦЕМЕНТ
Spanish Parodoncio, encías y estructuras de sostén del diente, estructura de la encía y las estructuras de sostén del diente (estructura corporal), estructura de la encía y las estructuras de sostén del diente, estructura de los tejidos periodontales (estructura corporal), estructura de los tejidos periodontales, estructura gingival y periodontal, tejidos periodontales, Estructuras de Soporte Dental, Paradencio, Periodoncio
Italian Parodontium, Paradentium, Periodonzio
Portuguese Parodontium, Espaço Biológico, Estruturas de Suporte Dentário, Periodonto
Czech parodont, závěsný aparát zubu
Croatian Not Translated[Periodontium]
Latvian Periodonts
Polish Przyzębie
Japanese 歯根膜組織, 歯周組織, 歯の支持組織
Norwegian Parodontium, Periodontium
German Paradentium, Parodont, Zahnstützstrukturen
Dutch Desmodontium, Parodontale (steun)weefsels, Parodontium, Periodontium