II. Causes: Antihypertensive

  1. Diuretics
    1. Urge Incontinence
      1. High urine volumes with secondary Bladder Irritability and contractions
  2. Calcium Channel Blockers
    1. Overflow Incontinence
      1. Relaxes Bladder
  3. Alpha-adrenergic antagonists
    1. Stress Incontinence
      1. Decreases Urethral sphincter tone
      2. However, alpha blockers reduce Overflow Incontinence in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  4. Analgesics including Opioids
  5. Muscle relaxants
  6. Sympathetic blockers

IV. Causes: Neuropsychiatric

  1. Sedative-Hypnotic Medications
    1. Overflow Incontinence
      1. Sedation results in Urinary Retention
  2. Antipsychotic Medications, Antidepressants and antiparkinsonism medications
    1. Overflow Incontinence
      1. Bladder contraction inhibition results in Urinary Retention

V. Causes: Miscellaneous

  1. Alcohol
    1. Urge Incontinence
      1. High urine volumes with secondary Bladder Irritability and contractions
    2. Overflow Incontinence
      1. Bladder contraction inhibition and Sedation result in Urinary Retention
  2. Antihistamines and Anticholinergics (including Bladder Antispasmodics)
    1. Overflow Incontinence
      1. Bladder contraction inhibition and Sedation result in Urinary Retention
  3. Thiazolidinediones (Glitazones, Actos)
    1. Functional Incontinence
      1. Fluid retention and nocturnal diuresis

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