II. Normal

  1. Dipstick with trace protein or less

III. Technique

  1. First morning void collected
  2. Detection Method
    1. Initial: Dipstick Urine Protein
    2. Confirmation
      1. Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio
      2. Previously used Sulfosalicylic acid
  3. Dipstick turns from yellow to green for protein present
    1. Negative: <10 mg/dl
    2. Trace: 10-20 mg/dl
    3. Protein 1+: 30 mg/dl
    4. Protein 2+: 100 mg/dl
    5. Protein 3+: 300 mg/dl
    6. Protein 4+: 1000 mg/dl

IV. Causes: Increased

V. Causes: False Positive

  1. Alkaline urine (Urine pH >7.5)
  2. Increased Urine Specific Gravity (concentrated)
  3. Specimen contaminated by chlorhexidine detergent
  4. Dipstick immersed too long in urine
  5. Medications
    1. Penicillin
    2. Sulfonamide
    3. Tolbutamide
    4. Phenazopyridine
  6. Body fluid contamination
    1. Gross Hematuria present
    2. Pus
    3. Semen
    4. Vaginal secretions

VI. Causes: False negative

  1. Albumin is not the primary protein
    1. Light chain protein (detected by Sulfosalicylic acid)
  2. Dilute urine (Urine Specific Gravity <1.015)
  3. Urine Protein concentration <10 mg per deciliter
  4. Urine pH decreased (acidic)

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