II. Normal

  1. 4.5-8.0 (usually 5.5 to 6.5)

III. Background

  1. Urine pH reflects serum pH except with RTA
  2. In Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA), Urine pH >5.5
    1. Urine cannot be acidified despite acid load

IV. Increased (Alkalotic urine)

  1. Stale ammoniacal sample (Very high pH)
    1. Void testing if old sample
  2. Bacteriuria
    1. Reflects urea splitting organisms
    2. Associated with Magnesium-ammonium phosphate crystals
  3. Vegetarian diet
  4. High citrate diet
  5. Renal Failure
  6. Drugs
    1. Antibiotics
    2. Bicarbonate
    3. Acetazolamide

V. Decreased (Acidic urine)

  1. Acidosis
  2. Diabetes Mellitus
  3. Starvation
  4. Diarrhea
  5. Uric Acid Calculi
  6. Acidic fruits (Cranberry)
  7. Drugs
    1. Ammonium chloride

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