II. Background: Illicit Use

  1. Club Drug
  2. Date Rape Drug used for Sedation
  3. Routes
    1. Smoked as powder with Tobacco or Marijuana
    2. Inhaled intranasally
    3. Injected
    4. Ingested
  4. Illicit use is often in combination with other agents
    1. Methamphetamine
    2. Cocaine
    3. Sildenafil
    4. Heroin
  5. Street Names when used illicitly
    1. Special K
    2. Super K
    3. Kit-Kat
    4. Keets
    5. Super acid
    6. Jet
    7. Cat Valiums
    8. Vitamin K

III. Symptoms

  1. See Ketamine
  2. Euphoria
  3. Dissociation
  4. Hallucinations
  5. Palpitations

IV. Signs

  1. See Ketamine
  2. Mydriasis
  3. Nystagmus
  4. Respiratory depression
  5. Laryngospasm
  6. Hypersalivation
  7. Emergence reaction (may present as Agitated Delirium)
  8. Atypical, Seizure-like movements
  9. Variable effect on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate

V. Toxicology: Detection of illicit use

  1. Specific tests to detect Ketamine usually not available
  2. Ketamine may cause positive PCP on Urine Tox Screen

VI. References

  1. Fontes (2014) Crit Dec Emerg Med 28(1): 14-24

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