II. Causes: Cardiovascular Disorders

  1. Bacterial Endocarditis
  2. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
  3. Cardiac tumors
  4. Aortic aneurysm
  5. Infected aortic graft
  6. Secondary Polycythemia

III. Causes: Pulmonary Disorders

  1. Lung tumors (primary or metastases)
  2. Pleural tumors (particularly Mesothelioma)
  3. Mediastinal tumors
  4. Lung Abscess or empyema
  5. Bronchiectasis
  6. Pulmonary Tuberculosis
  7. Sarcoidosis
  8. Bronchogenic cyst
  9. Cystic Fibrosis
  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Emphysema)
    1. Not typically associated with Clubbing, but when present associated with a four fold increase in Lung Cancer risk

IV. Causes: Gastrointestinal Disorders

  1. Neoplasms of liver, esophagus, or bowel
  2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (e.g. Ulcerative Colitis)
  3. Hepatic Cirrhosis
  4. Chronic Obstructive Jaundice or biliary Cirrhosis
  5. Amebiasis
  6. Intestinal Tuberculosis
  7. Subphrenic or Liver Abscess
  8. Celiac Sprue (Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy)

V. Causes: Miscellaneous Disorders

  1. Myxedema or Thyrotoxicosis
  2. Hematologic malignancies
  3. Polyarteritis Nodosa
  4. Idiopathic (Primary or familial)

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