I. Causes

  1. Aldosterone deficiency
    1. Syndrome Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism
    2. Addison's Disease
    3. Heparin
    4. Potassium sparing Diuretics (e.g. Spironolactone)
  2. Collecting duct dysfunction from Renal Insufficiency
    1. Diabetic Nephropathy
    2. Interstitial Nephritis
    3. Obstructive uropathy
    4. Renal Transplantation

II. Labs

III. Management

  1. Cause: Aldosterone or mineralocorticoid deficiency
    1. Fludrocortisone
  2. Cause: Chronic Renal Insufficiency
    1. Dietary Potassium restriction
    2. Loop Diuretics
    3. Low dose Oral Sodium Bicarbonate (1-2 meq/kg/day)

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