II. Causes: Infectious causes

III. Causes: Superior Vena Cava Obstruction

  1. Thoracic aneurysm
  2. Mediastinal cancer
  3. Thrombosis secondary to upper extremity infection
  4. Intraluminal metastasis secondary to hypernephroma

IV. Causes: Increased Capillary Permeability

  1. Acute nephritis
  2. Angioedema (Angioneurotic edema)
  3. Scleroderma

V. Causes: Miscellaneous

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