II. Epidemiology

  1. Incidence: 4% of men in the United States

III. History: Sexual

  1. Number of sexual partners in the last year
    1. Sex with men, women or both?
    2. Sex after using Alcohol or drugs?
    3. Sex with strangers or acquaintances?
    4. Do you use Condoms always?
      1. How often do you not use Condoms?
    5. How many Sexually Transmitted Infections have you had in the past?
  2. Types of sex (oral, vaginal, anal)?
    1. Insertive anal sex (top partner)
      1. Higher risk than oral sex for Sexually Transmitted Infection
    2. Receptive anal sex (bottom partner)
      1. Highest risk for Sexually Transmitted Infection

IV. History: Social

  1. Domestic Abuse or rape?
    1. Current abusive relationship?
  2. Support system
    1. Who are the other people in your home?
    2. Monogamous relationship?
    3. Family support (spouse, parents, siblings, children)?
    4. Close friends?

V. Labs

  1. Gonorrhea PCR (nucleic acid amplification test or NAAT)
    1. Oral Gonorrhea PCR if oral intercourse history in past year
    2. Anal Gonorrhea PCR if anal insertive or receptive intercourse in past year
    3. Urine Gonorrhea PCR if anal insertive intercourse in past year
  2. Chlamydia PCR (nucleic acid amplification test or NAAT)
    1. Anal Chlamydia PCR if anal insertive or receptive intercourse in past year
    2. Urine Chlamydia PCR if anal insertive intercourse in past year
  3. HIV Test
    1. Test at least annually in high risk patients (offer for all annually)
  4. Hepatitis A Serology
    1. Hepatitis A Vaccine if not immune
  5. Hepatitis B Serology (e.g. HBsAg)
    1. Test at least annually in high risk patients (offer for all annually)
    2. Hepatitis B Vaccine if not immune
  6. Hepatitis C
    1. Screen at least annually in high risk patients
    2. High risks include IVDA history, HIV Infection, multiple sex partners, unprotected sex
  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Testing
    1. Consider sceening for Genital Herpes serology if status unknown (per CDC)
  8. Syphilis Screening (e.g. RPR, VDRL)
    1. Screen annually (esp. in high risk groups)

VI. Evaluation: STD Screening in low risk groups

  1. Criteria
    1. Monogamous relationship OR
    2. Consistent Condom use
  2. Testing is optional
    1. Annual HIV Test
    2. Other Sexually Transmitted Infections (see above)

VII. Evaluation: STD Screening in high risk groups

  1. Criteria
    1. Multiple sexual partners OR
    2. Inconsistent Condom use
  2. Evaluate every 3 to 6 months evaluate STI risks
    1. See Immunizations below
    2. Obtain HIV Test and Hepatitis B testing at least annually
    3. Consider annual testing of Hepatitis C
    4. Gonorrhea and Chlamydia testing as described above
    5. Reinforce prevention practices below (includes Immunizations and HIV prevention)
    6. Consider additional tests as above

VIII. Prevention

  1. See Health Maintenance in Men
  2. General measures
    1. Always use Condoms
      1. Exception: Longterm monogamous couples without STI
    2. Stay aware of partner's Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) status
    3. Avoid high risk behavior (e.g. sex while intoxicated, multiple sexual partners)
  3. Immunizations
    1. Hepatitis A Vaccine (per CDC)
    2. Hepatitis B Vaccine (per CDC, USPTF)
    3. HPV Vaccine
      1. Indicated in all males age 26 years and younger
    4. Meningococcal Vaccine
      1. Indicated in Men who have Sex with Men AND one other risk factor (e.g. healthcare career)
  4. HIV Prevention
    1. See HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis
    2. See HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis
  5. Anal Cancer (due to HPV Infection)
    1. Baseline and annual anal pap test indicated in HIV Infection (per NY Dept Health)

IX. Complications: Sexually Transmitted Infections in Men who have Sex with Men (MSM)

  1. Chlamydia
    1. As with Gonorrhea, rectal and anal infections are often missed
  2. Gonorrhea
    1. As with Chlamydia, rectal and anal infections are often missed
    2. Higher risk with HIV Infection, recreational drug use
  3. Hepatitis A
    1. Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) represent 10% of new cases
  4. Hepatitis B
    1. Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) represent 20% of new cases
  5. Hepatitis C
    1. Higher risk with HIV Infection, receptive intercourse, multiple partners
  6. Genital Herpes
    1. Higher risk of acquiring HIV Infection
  7. HIV Infection or AIDS (Relative Risk: 44)
    1. Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) account for >50% of those with HIV, and >60% of those newly diagnosed
    2. Highest risk group is, black MSM 13 to 24 years old
  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Anal Cancer (Relative Risk: 17)
    1. Higher risk with HIV Infection
  9. Proctocolitis (infectious Proctitis, enteritis)
    1. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, HSV, Syphilis and Lymphogranuloma venereum transmitted via receptive anal intercourse
  10. Syphilis
    1. Increasing risk among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), especially among minority groups

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window

Ontology: Gays (C0242657)

Concepts Population Group (T098)
MSH D018451
English Gay, gay, gays, Gays
Dutch homoseksueel, Homoseksuelen
French Homosexuel, Gays, Gais
German schwul, Schwule
Italian Omosessuale, Gay
Portuguese Homossexual masculino, Gays
Spanish Homosexual, Gays
Japanese 男性同性愛者, ダンセイドウセイアイシャ
Czech Gay, gayové
Hungarian Homoszexuális
Norwegian Homoseksuelle, mannlige, Mannlige homoseksuelle, Homoer

Ontology: Male Homosexuality (C0242658)

Definition (MSHCZE) Sexuální přitažlivost a vztah mezi muži.
Definition (MSH) Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Concepts Behavior (T053)
MSH D018451
SnomedCT 76102007
English Homosexuality, Male, Homosexuality Male, Male homosexual state, Male homosexual, Male homosexuality, Male homosexual (finding), Male Homosexuality
Swedish Homosexualitet, manlig
Czech homosexualita mužská
Finnish Miesten homoseksuaalisuus
Russian GOMOEROTIZM MUZHSKOI, GOMOSEKSUALIZM MUZHSKOI, ГОМОСЕКСУАЛИЗМ МУЖСКОЙ, ГОМОЭРОТИЗМ МУЖСКОЙ
Polish Geje, Homoseksualizm męski
Norwegian Homoseksualitet, mannlig
Portuguese Homossexuais, Gueis, Homossexualidade Masculina
Spanish hombre homosexual, homosexualidad masculina (hallazgo), homosexualidad masculina, Homosexualidad Masculina
French Homosexualité masculine
German Homosexualität, männliche
Dutch Homoseksualiteit, mannelijke
Italian Omosessualità maschile

Ontology: Men who have Sex with Men (C2827413)

Definition (NCI) Men who engage in sexual activity with other men, regardless of how they identify themselves.
Concepts Population Group (T098)
English MSM, Men who have Sex with Men