II. Pathophysiology

  1. Glucosamine is endogenous amino sugar, a precursor of glycosaminoglycans
  2. Glycosaminoglycans are present in joint structures such as Synovial Fluid
  3. Effects
    1. Stimulates chondrocyte metabolism
    2. May have anti-inflammatory effects at higher dose

III. Source

  1. Marine exoskeleton or
  2. Synthetically derived

IV. Efficacy

  1. Appears more effective than Placebo at relieving pain
  2. Effect requires at least one month of therapy
  3. Less Knee Joint space narrowing with Glucosamine over Placebo in 3 years
    1. Reginster (2001) Lancet 357:251-6 [PubMed]

V. Dosing

  1. Glucosamine 500 mg orally three times daily

VI. Adverse Effects

  1. Gastrointestinal upset
  2. Hemoglobin A1C and Serum Glucose are NOT impacted (contrary to initial reports)
    1. Scroggie (2003) Arch Intern Med 163:1587-90
  3. Glucosamine is safe in shellfish allergy (despite marine exoskeleton source)
    1. Gray (2004) J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:459-60 [PubMed]

VII. Drug Interactions

  1. Warfarin (Coumadin)
    1. Warfarin's Anticoagulation effect is increased

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Ontology: Glucosamine (C0017718)

Definition (CSP) amino sugar derivative of glucose, substituted at the 2 position, occurring in glycosaminoglycans and a variety of complex polysaccharides such as blood group substances.
Concepts Carbohydrate (T118) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D005944
SnomedCT 70237008, 408111007
English Glucosamine, 2-Amino-2-Deoxyglucose, glucosamine, D-Glucose, 2-amino-2-deoxy-, glucosamine (medication), GLUCOSAMINE, Glucosamine [Chemical/Ingredient], glucosamines, glycosamine, glucosamine products, 2 Amino 2 Deoxyglucose, Glycosamine, Glucosamine (substance), Glucosamine (product), Glucosamine product
Swedish Glukosamin
Czech glukosamin
Finnish Glukosamiini
Russian GLIUKOZAMIN, ГЛЮКОЗАМИН
Japanese キトサミン, グルコサミン
Polish Glukozamina
Norwegian Glukosamin
Spanish glicosamina, glucosamina (sustancia), glucosamina, glucosamina (producto), Glucosamina
French Chitosamine, Glucosamine, Glycosamine
German Glucosamin, Glukosamin
Italian Glucosamina
Portuguese Glucosamina