II. Grading

  1. Grade 0: No translation
  2. Grade 1: Mild translation (0-1 cm)
  3. Grade 2: Moderate translation (1-2 cm)
  4. Grade 3: Severe translation (>2 cm)

III. Approach: General

  1. Assess for generalized ligamentous laxity
  2. Assess for voluntary instability

IV. Technique: Specific Tests

  1. Shoulder Anterior Drawer Test
    1. Translation suggests anterior instability (90%)
  2. Shoulder Posterior Drawer Test
  3. Inferior translation (Shoulder sulcus sign)
    1. Patient stands
    2. Pull both arms downward
    3. Sulcus will form if ligament laxity on one side
  4. Shoulder Apprehension Test (and Relocation)
  5. Shoulder Crossover Maneuver (AC Joint disease)

Images: Related links to external sites (from Google)