II. Indication

  1. Pediatric Gait Abnormality
  2. Intoeing evaluation

III. Technique

  1. Observe child walk
  2. Evaluate foot long axis relative to line of walking
    1. Imagine line from heel to second to third toe
    2. Estimate angle of foot deviating from this line

IV. Interpretation: Normal rotational angles (varies by age)

  1. Age 1: -4 to 19 degrees (mean 7 degrees)
  2. Age 3: -4 to 17 degrees (mean 6 degrees)
  3. Age 5: -4 to 15 degrees (mean 5 degrees)
  4. Age 7: -4 to 15 degrees (mean 5 degrees)
  5. Age 9: -4 to 14 degrees (mean 4 degrees)

V. Interpretation: Abnormal

  1. See In-Toeing (negative rotation angles)
  2. See Out-toeing

VI. References

  1. Schmale (2003) AAFP Board Review, Seattle

Images: Related links to external sites (from Google)