II. Causes

  1. Direct blow to Shoulder
  2. Chronic repetitive overhead Shoulder traction (e.g. tennis, swimming, baseball)

III. Symptoms

  1. Diffuse Shoulder or Neck Pain with overhead activity

IV. Signs

  1. Forward flexion weakness at Shoulder
  2. Scapular winging

V. Management

  1. Shoulder Range of Motion Exercises
    1. Prevents Frozen Shoulder and contractures
  2. Strengthen remaining Shoulder stabilizing muscles
    1. Trapezius Muscles
    2. Rhomboid Muscles
    3. Levator Scapula Muscle
  3. Surgery is rarely indicated

VI. Diagnostics

  1. Nerve Conduction Studies and EMG
  2. Shoulder MRI
    1. Not typically indicated but may show supraspinatus and infraspinatus denervation changes

VII. Course

  1. Therapy leads to recovery times typically of 9-12 months (may require up to 2 years)

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