II. Epidemiology

  1. Accounts for 10% of Intrauterine Growth Retardation
  2. Usually occurs in early gestation

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Intrauterine Growth Retardation
  2. Affects both Head and body growth
  3. Associated with serious neurologic sequelae

IV. Causes

  1. Severe maternal malnutrition
  2. Maternal Anemia
  3. Multiple Gestation
  4. Phenylketonuria (mother or child)
  5. Uncontrolled Severe Asthma
    1. Bracken (2003) Obstet Gynecol 102:739-52 [PubMed]
  6. Chromosomal abnormality
    1. Trisomy 13
    2. Trisomy 18
    3. Trisomy 21
  7. Congenital malformation
    1. Dwarf syndromes
  8. Early infection
    1. TORCH Virus infection
    2. Listeria
    3. Syphilis
    4. Tuberculosis
  9. Teratogen Exposure
    1. Maternal Tobacco abuse
    2. Illicit Drug abuse (Heroin, Methadone)
    3. Phenytoin (Dilantin)
    4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
      1. No amount of Alcohol is safe!

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