III. Contraindications

  1. MAO inhibitor use within last 14 days
  2. Bone Marrow depression
  3. Pregnancy
  4. Asian patients who are positive for HLA-B1502
    1. Risk of Steven's Johnson: 5% if HLA-B1502 positive
    2. Also associated with Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
    3. FDA has issued a black box warning
    4. Man (2007) Epilepsia 48(5):1015-8 [PubMed]

IV. Adverse Effects: Dose related

  1. Gradual tolerance to side effects (slowly titrate)
  2. Headache
  3. Lethargy or Fatigue
  4. Nausea and Vomiting
  5. Tremor
  6. Nystagmus
  7. Ataxia
  8. Diplopia

V. Adverse Effects: Other

  1. Morbilliform rash
  2. Leukopenia
  3. Agranulocytosis
  4. Aplastic Anemia
  5. Cardiac conduction abnormality (increases A-V delay)
  6. Hyponatremia
    1. Occurs in up to 40% of patients
    2. Elderly are at higher risk of SIADH
  7. Liver failure
  8. Osteoporosis
  9. Serum Sickness
  10. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
  11. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

VI. Drug Interactions (Numerous)

  1. Substrate of Cytochrome P450 2C8/9
  2. Substrate of Cytochrome P450 3A4
  3. Induces Cytochrome P450 1A2
  4. Induces Cytochrome P450 2B6
  5. Induces Cytochrome P450 2C8/9
  6. Induces Cytochrome P450 2C19
  7. Induces Cytochrome P450 3A4

VII. Dose: General

  1. Titrate dose to serum concentration and effect
  2. Target serum concentration: 4-12 mcg/ml
    1. Observe closely for concentration 8 mcg/ml or higher
  3. Toxic serum concentration: >15 mcg/ml

VIII. Dose: Adults

  1. Seizure Disorder
    1. Initial: 200 mg orally twice daily
    2. Increase by 200 mg/day increments weekly
    3. Target: 800-1200 mg/day divided three to four time daily
  2. Trigeminal Neuralgia
    1. Initial: 100 mg orally twice daily
    2. Increase by 100 mg/day increments weekly
    3. Target: 400-800 mg/day divided twice daily
  3. Bipolar Disorder
    1. Initial: 200 mg twice daily
    2. Increase by 200 mg as often as daily in acute mania as tolerated
      1. Slower titration results in fewer side effects
    3. Target: 200-1600 mg per day
    4. Target serum level: 4 to 12 mcg/ml

IX. Dose: Elderly

  1. Initial: 100 mg orally twice daily
  2. Increase by 100 mg/day increments weekly
  3. Target: 400-1000 mg/day divided three to four times daily

X. Monitoring

  1. Routine labs
    1. Obtain monthly for first 2 months, then every 3 to 12 months
    2. Complete Blood Count with Platelet Count
    3. Liver Function Tests
  2. HLA-B1502
    1. Indicated before starting in asian patients
    2. See contraindications above
  3. Serum Carbamazepine level
    1. Initial: Every 1-2 weeks
    2. Later: Every 3-6 months
    3. Also check before and after dose changes
  4. Other tests previously monitored with Carbamazepine use
    1. Serum Iron
    2. Urinalysis
    3. Serum Sodium
    4. Blood Urea Nitrogen
    5. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

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Cost: Medications

carbamazepine (on 8/17/2016 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
CARBAMAZEPINE 100 MG TAB CHEW Generic $0.41 each
CARBAMAZEPINE 100 MG/5 ML SUSP Generic $0.13 per ml
CARBAMAZEPINE 200 MG TABLET Generic $0.65 each
CARBAMAZEPINE ER 100 MG CAP Generic $1.09 each
CARBAMAZEPINE ER 100 MG TABLET Generic $0.85 each
CARBAMAZEPINE ER 200 MG CAP Generic $0.96 each
CARBAMAZEPINE ER 200 MG TABLET Generic $1.50 each
CARBAMAZEPINE ER 300 MG CAP Generic $1.12 each
CARBAMAZEPINE ER 400 MG TABLET Generic $3.08 each
tegretol (on 7/12/2016 at Medicaid.Gov Survey of pharmacy drug pricing)
TEGRETOL 100 MG/5 ML SUSP Generic $0.13 per ml
TEGRETOL 200 MG TABLET Generic $0.65 each
TEGRETOL XR 100 MG TABLET Generic $0.85 each
TEGRETOL XR 200 MG TABLET Generic $1.50 each
TEGRETOL XR 400 MG TABLET Generic $3.08 each

Ontology: Carbamazepine (C0006949)

Definition (CHV) a kind of epilepsy treatment drug
Definition (CHV) a kind of epilepsy treatment drug
Definition (NCI) A tricyclic compound chemically related to tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) with anticonvulsant and analgesic properties. Carbamazepine exerts its anticonvulsant activity by reducing polysynaptic responses and blocking post-tetanic potentiation. Its analgesic activity is not understood; however, carbamazepine is commonly used to treat pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia.
Definition (MSH) An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
Definition (CSP) anticonvulsant and antineuralgic used in the treatment of pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia and in epilepsy manifested by tonic-clonic and partial seizures.
Definition (PDQ) A tricyclic compound chemically related to tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) with anticonvulsant and analgesic properties. Carbamazepine exerts its anticonvulsant activity by reducing polysynaptic responses and blocking post-tetanic potentiation. Its analgesic activity is not understood; however, carbamazepine is commonly used to treat pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42418&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42418&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C341" NCI Thesaurus)
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D002220
SnomedCT 255643003, 387222003, 40820003
CPT 1011157
LNC LP16061-1, MTHU003352
English Carbamazepine, 5H-Dibenz(b,f)azepine-5-carboxamide, carbamazepine, carbamazepine (medication), Carbamazepine - chemical, CARBAMAZEPINE, Carbamazepine [Chemical/Ingredient], carbamazepines, carBAMazepine, CarBAMazepine, Carbamazepine - chemical (substance), Carbamazepine Anhydrous, Carbamazepine product, Carbamazepine (product), Carbamazepine (substance)
Swedish Karbamazepin
Czech karbamazepin
Finnish Karbamatsepiini
Russian FINLEPSIN, TEGRETOL, KARBAMAZEPIN, DIFENILMOCHEVINY SOEDINENIIA, ДИФЕНИЛМОЧЕВИНЫ СОЕДИНЕНИЯ, КАРБАМАЗЕПИН, ТЕГРЕТОЛ, ФИНЛЕПСИН
Japanese カルバマゼピン
Croatian KARBAMAZEPIN
Polish Amizepin, Karbamazepina
Spanish carbamacepina - químico, carbamezepina - químico, carbamezepina - químico (sustancia), Carbamacepina, carbamacepina, carbamazepina (producto), carbamazepina (sustancia), carbamazepina, Carbamazepina
French Carbamazépine
German Carbamazepin
Italian Carbamazepina
Portuguese Carbamazepina

Ontology: Tegretol (C0700087)

Definition (CHV) a kind of epilepsy treatment drug
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D002220
English tegretol, TEGretol, Tegretol