II. Normal

  1. Clear as water

III. Abnormal findings

  1. Faint yellow, orange or pink (Xanthochromia)
    1. CSF Protein >100 mg/dl
    2. Red Blood Cell lysis
    3. Red Blood Cell >100,000/mm3 (Subarachnoid Hemorrhage)
  2. Cloudy or turbid
    1. CSF Leukocytes > 200 wbc/mm3
    2. Red Blood Cells > 400 per mm3
  3. Brown or Dark CSF
    1. Metastatic Melanoma (meningeal Melanomatosis)
    2. Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinemia)
  4. Green CSF
    1. Hyperbilirubinemia
    2. Purulent cerebrospinal fluid

IV. References

  1. Kooiker in Roberts (1998) Procedures in ER, p. 1067-75
  2. Ravel (1995) Lab Medicine, Mosby, p. 294-9
  3. Tunkel in Mandell (2000) Infectious Disease, p. 974-8
  4. Seehusen (2003) Am Fam Physician 68:1103-8 [PubMed]

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window