II. Anatomy

  1. General
    1. Paired sensory relays
    2. Located in the posterior diencephalon of the brain
    3. Thalamus located on each side of Third Ventricle
  2. Nucleii
    1. Ventral Posterolateral Nucleus (VPL)
      1. Spinal sensory Neurons from the periphery Synapse
    2. Ventral Posteromedial Nucleus (VPM)
      1. Trigeminal LemniscusSynapse
    3. Anterior Thalamic Nucleus
      1. Portion of the Papez Circuit
    4. Ventral Lateral Nucleus (VL)
      1. Cerebellum input
  3. Images
    1. neuroBrainXsGrayBB717.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. neuroBrainXsGrayBB716.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

III. Physiology

  1. Receives peripheral sensory signals through the Brainstem
  2. Communicates with the Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Hypothalamus
  3. Transmits sensory signals to the cerebral cortex
    1. Motor signsal from the cerebral cortex bypass the Thalamus via the Internal Capsule

IV. Signs: Brain Lesion

  1. Contralateral sensory loss
  2. Behavioral changes
  3. Language disorder

V. References

  1. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 105
  2. Newton (1994) Am Fam Physician 49(4): 787-97 [PubMed]

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Ontology: Thalamic structure (C0039729)

Definition (CHV) a mass of nerve cells located in the central brain
Definition (CHV) a mass of nerve cells located in the central brain
Definition (NCI) An ovoid mass composed predominantly of gray substance and associated laminae of white substance. The thalamus is divided into anterior, medial, and lateral parts. The function of the thalamus is to relay sensory impulses and cerebellar and basal ganglia projections to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus is positioned within the posterior part of the diencephalon forming most of each lateral wall of the third ventricle.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) An ovoid mass composed predominantly of gray substance and associated laminae of white substance. The thalamus is divided into anterior, medial, and lateral parts. The function of the thalamus is to relay sensory impulses and cerebellar and basal ganglia projections to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus is positioned within the posterior part of the diencephalon forming most of each lateral wall of the third ventricle. (NCI)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) An area of the brain that helps process information from the senses and transmit it to other parts of the brain.
Definition (MSH) Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Definition (CSP) paired bodies containing mostly gray substance and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain; represents the major portion of the diencephalon.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D013788
SnomedCT 42695009
English Thalamus, Dorsal thalamus, Dorsal thalamus (Anthoney), thalamic, Dorsal Thalamus, thalamus, Th, dorsal thalamus (Anthoney), Thalamus dorsalis, thalamencephalon, thalamus opticus, THALAMUS, BRAIN, THALAMUS, Thalamencephalon, Thalamencephalons, Thalamic structure (body structure), Thalamic structure, Thalamus, NOS
Swedish Talamus
Czech talamus
Finnish Talamus
Russian TALAMUS, ТАЛАМУС
Croatian TALAMUS
Polish Wzgórze
Norwegian Talamus, Thalamus
Spanish estructura talámica (estructura corporal), estructura talámica, tálamo, Tálamo
French Couche optique, Thalamus
German Thalamus, Sehhügel
Italian Talamo
Dutch Thalamus
Portuguese Tálamo

Ontology: Anterior Nuclear Group (C0228316)

Definition (MSH) Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D020643
SnomedCT 279124009, 38389007
English Anterior thalamic nucleus, Anterior thalamic nucleus (body structure), Anterior nuclei of thalamus, Anterior thalamic nuclei, Anterior nuclear group, Anterior nucleus of thalamus, Anterior Thalamic Nuclei, Nuclei, Anterior Thalamic, Thalamic Nuclei, Anterior, anterior nuclear group, anterior nuclear group of the thalamus, anterior thalamic nuclei, ANG, anterior thalamus, anterior thalamic nucleus, anterior nucleus of thalamus, anterior nuclei of thalamus, Nucleus thalamicus anterior, Nuclei anteriores thalami, Nuclei anteriores (thalami), Nucleus anterior thalami, Thalamus, Anterior, Thalamus Anterior Nucleus, Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus, Anterior Thalamic Nucleus, Anterior Thalamus, Anterior nuclear group of thalamus, Structure of anterior nuclear group of thalamus (body structure), Structure of anterior nuclear group of thalamus, Anterior nuclear group of thalamus, NOS, Anterior Nuclear Group
Swedish Främre talamuskärnor
Spanish núcleo talámico anterior (estructura corporal), estructura del grupo nuclear anterior del tálamo (estructura corporal), estructura del grupo nuclear anterior del tálamo, grupo nuclear anterior del tálamo, Grupo Nuclear Anterior, Núcleos Talámicos Anteriores
Czech nuclei anteriores thalami, skupina předních talamických jader
Finnish Etumaiset talamustumakkeet
French Noyaux antérieurs thalamiques, Noyaux thalamiques antérieurs, Groupe nucléaire antérieur du thalamus, Noyaux antérieurs du thalamus, Noyaux du groupe antérieur du thalamus, Noyaux thalamiques du groupe antérieur
Russian TALAMUSA ANTERODORZAL'NOGO IADRA, TALAMUSA ANTEROMEDIAL'NOGO IADRA, TALAMUSA PEREDNEGO IADRA, TALAMUSA ANTEROVENTRAL'NOGO IADRA, ТАЛАМУСА АНТЕРОВЕНТРАЛЬНОГО ЯДРА, ТАЛАМУСА АНТЕРОДОРЗАЛЬНОГО ЯДРА, ТАЛАМУСА АНТЕРОМЕДИАЛЬНОГО ЯДРА, ТАЛАМУСА ПЕРЕДНЕГО ЯДРА
Japanese 視床前腹側核, 前腹側核, 視床前内側核, 視床前核, 前背側核, 前内側核, 内側前核, 背側前核, 腹側前核, 視床前背側核
Polish Jądra wzgórza przednie
Norwegian Nuclei anteriores thalami, Fremre talamuskjerner, Talamuskjerner, fremre, Anteriore thalamuskjerner, Fremre thalamuskjerner, Anteriore talamuskjerner, Thalamuskjerner, fremre
Portuguese Núcleos Talâmicos Anteriores, Núcleo Talâmico Anteromedial, Núcleo Talâmico Anteroventral, Nuclei Anteriores Thalami, Núcleo Talâmico Anterodorsal, Grupo Nuclear Anterior, Núcleos Anteriores do Tálamo
German Anteriore Kerngruppe (Thalamus), Nuclei anteriores thalami, Vordere Thalamuskerne
Italian Nucleo talamico anteriore
Dutch Anterieure kerngroep, Nuclei anteriores thalami

Ontology: Ventral Nuclear Group (C0228333)

Definition (MSH) A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D020651
SnomedCT 279125005, 1707008
English Ventral thalamic nucleus, Ventral thalamic nucleus (body structure), Ventral nuclear mass, Ventral nuclei of thalamus, Ventral tier thalamic nuclei, Ventral nuclear group, Group, Ventral Nuclear, Nuclear Group, Ventral, Ventral Nuclear Groups, Nuclei, Ventral Thalamic, Nucleus, Ventral Thalamic, Thalamic Nuclei, Ventral, Thalamic Nucleus, Ventral, Ventral Thalamic Nuclei, Ventral Thalamic Nucleus, Ventral Nuclei of Thalamus, ventral nuclear mass, VNG, ventral nuclei of thalamus, ventral tier thalamic nuclei, ventral nuclear group, Nuclei ventrales thalami, Nuclear Mass, Ventral, Nuclear Masses, Ventral, Ventral Nuclear Masses, Ventral Nuclear Mass, Masses, Ventral Nuclear, Mass, Ventral Nuclear, Structure of ventral nuclear group of thalamus (body structure), Structure of ventral nuclear group of thalamus, Ventral nuclear group of thalamus, Ventral nuclear group of thalamus, NOS, Ventral Nuclear Group
Swedish Talamuskärnor, ventrala
Spanish núcleo talámico ventral (estructura corporal), estructura del grupo nuclear ventral del tálamo (estructura corporal), estructura del grupo nuclear ventral del tálamo, grupo nuclear ventral del tálamo, Grupo Nuclear Ventral, Núcleos Talámicos Ventrales
Czech nuclei ventrales thalami, skupina ventrálních talamických jader
Finnish Ventraaliset talamustumakkeet
French Noyau ventral thalamique, Noyaux ventraux thalamiques, Noyaux thalamiques ventraux, Groupe nucléaire ventral du thalamus, Noyaux ventraux du thalamus
Russian TALAMUSA IADRA VENTRAL'NYE, ТАЛАМУСА ЯДРА ВЕНТРАЛЬНЫЕ
Japanese 視床腹側核
Polish Jądro wzgórza brzuszne, Grupa jądrowa brzuszna
Norwegian Nuclei ventrales thalami, Ventrale talamuskjerner, Thalamuskjerner, ventrale, Talamuskjerner, ventrale, Ventrale thalamuskjerner
Italian Nuclei del talamo ventrale
Portuguese Núcleo Ventral Lateral Talâmico, Núcleo Ventral Posterior Inferior Talâmico, Núcleo Ventral Posteromedial Talâmico, Núcleo Ventral Anterior Talâmico, Núcleo Ventral Posterolateral Talâmico, Núcleos Ventrais Talâmicos, Núcleo Ventral Posterior Talâmico, Grupo Nuclear Ventral, Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo
German Nuclei ventrales thalami, Ventrale Thalamuskerne
Dutch Nuclei ventrales thalami, Ventrale kerngroep (thalamus), Voorste thalamuskernen

Ontology: Ventral Posterolateral Nucleus (C0228337)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D020651
SnomedCT 7091000
French Noyau ventro-postéro-latéral du thalamus, Noyau ventral postérolatéral, Noyau ventral postéro-latéral du thalamus, Noyau ventral postéro-latéral, Noyau ventral postérolatéral du thalamus
Czech nucleus ventralis posterolateralis thalami
Portuguese Núcleo Ventral Posterolateral do Tálamo
Spanish Núcleo Talámico Posterolateral Ventral, estructura del núcleo posterolateral ventral del tálamo (estructura corporal), estructura del núcleo posterolateral ventral del tálamo, núcleo posterolateral ventral del tálamo
German Nucleus ventralis posterolateralis thalami
English Ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus, Posterolateral ventral nucleus of thalamus, Ventral posterolateral nucleus, Nucleus, Ventral Posterolateral, Posterolateral Nucleus, Ventral, Ventral Posterolateral Nucleus, posterolateral ventral nucleus of thalamus, ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus, VPL, ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus, ventroposterolateral nucleus of the thalamus, ventral posterolateral nucleus, ventral posterior lateral nucleus, Nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis thalami, Nucleus ventralis posterolateralis, Nucleus ventralis posterolateralis thalami, Nucleus ventralis thalami posterior lateralis, ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus, general, Ventralis Posterolaterali, Nucleus, Ventralis Posterolateralis, Nucleus, Nucleus Ventralis Posterolaterali, Posterolateralis, Nucleus Ventralis, Nucleus Ventralis Posterolateralis, Posterolaterali, Nucleus Ventralis, Ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus, Structure of ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus (body structure), Structure of ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus, Ventral Posterolateral Thalamic Nucleus
Norwegian Nucleus ventralis posterolateralis thalami
Italian Nucleo ventro-postero-laterale del talamo
Dutch Nucleus ventralis posterolateralis (thalamus)

Ontology: Ventral Lateral Thalamic Nucleus (C0228339)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D020651
SnomedCT 279146001, 1580005
English Nucleus ventralis lateralis, Lateral ventral nucleus of thalamus, Ventral lateral nucleus, Ventrolateral thalamic nucleus, Ventral lateral thalamic nuclei, Ventral lateral complex of thalamus, Nuclei ventrales laterales thalami, Ventral Lateral Thalamic Nucleus, Nucleus, Ventral Lateral, Ventral Lateral Nucleus, Nucleus, Ventrolateral Thalamic, Thalamic Nucleus, Ventrolateral, Ventrolateral Thalamic Nucleus, Ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus, ventral lateral nucleus, ventral lateral thalamic nuclei, ventral lateral thalamic nucleus, VL, ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, lateral ventral nucleus of thalamus, ventrolateral thalamic nucleus, Nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami, Nucleus ventralis intermedius, Nucleus ventralis thalami lateralis, Nucleus ventrolateralis thalami, Nucleus Ventralis Lateralis, Thalamus, Ventrolateral, Ventrolateralis Thalamus, Nucleus, Nucleus Ventralis Laterali, Nucleus Ventralis Intermedius, Intermedius, Nucleus Ventralis, Ventralis Laterali, Nucleus, Nucleus Ventrolateralis Thalami, Nucleus Ventrolateralis Thalamus, Thalamus, Nucleus Ventrolateralis, Lateralis, Nucleus Ventralis, Ventralis Intermedius, Nucleus, Ventralis Lateralis, Nucleus, Laterali, Nucleus Ventralis, Ventrolateral Thalamus, Ventral Lateral Thalamic Nuclei, Ventrolateralis Thalami, Nucleus, Thalami, Nucleus Ventrolateralis, Ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, Structure of ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus (body structure), Structure of ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, Ventrolateral Nucleus of the Thalamus
Czech nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami
Portuguese Núcleo Ventral Lateral do Tálamo
Spanish Núcleo Talámico Ventral Lateral, estructura del núcleo lateral ventral del tálamo (estructura corporal), estructura del núcleo lateral ventral del tálamo, núcleo lateral ventral del tálamo
French Noyau ventral latéral thalamique, Noyau ventral latéral du thalamus, Noyau ventral latéral, Noyau ventro-latéral du thalamus, Noyau ventrolatéral du thalamus
German Nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami
Norwegian Nucleus ventralis lateralis thalami
Italian Nucleo ventrale laterale del talamo, Nucleo ventro-laterale del talamo, Nucleo ventrale laterale
Dutch Nucleus ventrolateralis (thalamus)