II. Definition

  1. Neuron
    1. Conducting cell of the neurologic system which receives, conducts and transmits small electrical signals
  2. Synapse
    1. Connections between Neurons in which they communicate via chemical signals (neurotransmitters)
  3. Neurologic Pathway
    1. Chain of communicating Neurons
  4. Neuraxis Tract (or fasciculus, peduncle or lemniscus)
    1. Bundle of axons in a pathway within the central nervous system (CNS)
  5. Nerve
    1. Bundle of axons in a pathway within the peripheral nervous system

III. Components

  1. Dendrites
  2. Cell Body
    1. Nucleus
    2. Cytoplasm (perikaryon)
  3. Axon

IV. Images

  1. NeuroCellGrayBB629.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  2. NeuroCellGrayBB626.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  3. NeuroCellGrayBB625.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

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Ontology: Neurons (C0027882)

Definition (FMA) Neural cell which has as its direct parts a cell body (soma) and one or more neurites; the neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Examples: unipolar neuron, bipolar neuron, neuron of retina.
Definition (FMA) Somatic cell which is dervied from the neuro-ectoderm or the neural crest.
Definition (MSHCZE) Základní buněčné jednotky nervové tkáně. Každý neuron sestává z těla, axonu a dendritů - výběžků neuronu. Jejich účelem je přijímat, vést a přenášet impulsy v nervovém systému.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A type of cell that receives and sends messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. The messages are sent by a weak electrical current.
Definition (NCI) Any of the conducting cells of the nervous system. A typical neuron consists of a cell body, containing the nucleus and the surrounding cytoplasm (perikaryon); several short radiating processes (dendrites); and one long process (the axon), which terminates in twiglike branches (telodendrons) and may have branches (collaterals) projecting along its course.
Definition (MSH) The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Definition (CSP) basic cellular units of nervous tissue; each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites and their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D009474
SnomedCT 47220008
English Cell, Nerve, Cells, Nerve, Nerve Cells, nervous system cell, nerve unit, neurocyte, neurone, Neural cell, Nerve cell, Neurone, cells nervous system, cells neural, nerve cell, neurons, neural cell, nerve cells, neuron, Neuron, Neuron (cell), Neuron, NOS, Nerve Cell, Neural Cell, Neurocyte, Neurons
Swedish Nervceller
Czech neurony, nervové buňky
Finnish Hermosolut
Italian Cellule nervose, Neuroni
Russian NEIRONY, NERVNYE KLETKI, NEIROTSIT, NEVROTSIT, НЕВРОЦИТ, НЕЙРОНЫ, НЕЙРОЦИТ, НЕРВНЫЕ КЛЕТКИ
Croatian NEURONI
Latvian Nervu šūnas, Neironi
French Cellule nerveuse, Neurone, Cellules nerveuses, Neurones
Polish Neurocyty, Komórki nerwowe, Neurony
Japanese 神経細胞, ニューロン, ノイロン, 神経単位
Norwegian Nevroner, Nerveceller
Spanish Células Neurales, neurona (célula), neurona, Neuronas, Células Nerviosas
Portuguese Células Neurais, Células Nervosas, Neurônios
German Nervenzellen, Neuronen
Dutch Neuron, Neuronen, Zenuwcellen

Ontology: Synapses (C0039062)

Definition (MSHCZE) Specializované spojení, na němž dochází ke styku neuronu s cílovou buňkou. U klasické synapse dojde k uvolnění chemického přenašeče (transmiteru) z měchýřku presynaptického zakončení neuronu, ten je rozstříknut přes synaptickou štěrbinu na aktivovaný receptor postsynaptické membrány cílové buňky. Cílem může být dendrit, buněčné tělo nebo axon jiného neuronu nebo specializovaná oblast svalu či sekreční buňka. Neurony mohou také komunikovat cestou přímého elektrického spojení prostřednictvím ELEKTRICKÝCH SYNAPSÍ. Existují i jiná nesynaptická spojení kromě chemické a elektrické signalizace, a to cestou mimobuněčně zprostředkované interakce. r
Definition (GO) The junction between a nerve fiber of one neuron and another neuron or muscle fiber or glial cell; the site of interneuronal communication. As the nerve fiber approaches the synapse it enlarges into a specialized structure, the presynaptic nerve ending, which contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. At the tip of the nerve ending is the presynaptic membrane; facing it, and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft) is a specialized area of membrane on the receiving cell, known as the postsynaptic membrane. In response to the arrival of nerve impulses, the presynaptic nerve ending secretes molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane. [ISBN:0198506732]
Definition (NCI) Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate through direct electrical connections which are sometimes called electrical synapses.(MeSH)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The space between the end of a nerve cell and another cell. Nerve impulses are usually carried to the neighboring cell by chemicals called neurotransmitters, which are released by the nerve cell and are taken up by another cell on the other side of the synapse. The neighboring cell may be another nerve cell, a muscle cell, or a gland cell.
Definition (CSP) specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell; presynaptic terminals release a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell; the target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell; do not confuse with the immunological synapse, see cross reference for that concept.
Definition (MSH) Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
MSH D013569
SnomedCT 69147006
French Synapse, Synapses, Jonction synaptique, Jonctions synaptiques
English synaptic junction, Synapse, neuron junction, neuron-neuron junction, Synapsis, Synaptic junction, synapses, synapse, synapsis, Synapses, Synapse structure (body structure), Synapse structure
Swedish Synapser
Czech synapse
Finnish Synapsit
Russian SINAPSY, СИНАПСЫ
Japanese 接合部-神経細胞間, シナプス, 神経細胞間シナプス
Croatian SINAPSE
Latvian Sinapses
Polish Synapsy
Norwegian Synapser, Synapse
Spanish estructura de la sinapsis (estructura corporal), estructura de la sinapsis, sinapsis, Sinapsis
German Synapsen
Italian Sinapsi
Dutch Synaps, Synapsen
Portuguese Sinapses

Ontology: Nerve fasciculus (C0549154)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 123168002, 57592002
English Nerve fasciculus, Nerve bundle, Nerve fiber bundle, Neural fasciculus, nerve bundle, bundle nerve, bundles nerve, Nerve bundle (body structure), Nerve bundle -RETIRED-
Spanish haz nervioso, haz nervioso (concepto no activo)

Ontology: Lemniscus of neuraxis (C2330117)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
English Neuraxis lemniscus, Lemniscus of neuraxis

Ontology: Tract of neuraxis (C2330216)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
English Neuraxis tract, Tract of neuraxis

Ontology: Peduncle of neuraxis (C2332863)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
English Peduncle of neuraxis, Neuraxis peduncle