II. Anatomy: Components

  1. Dorsal Striatum (Caudate Nucleus, Putamen)
    1. Medial Dorsal Striatum (Caudate Nucleus)
    2. Internal Capsule (courses between the Caudate Nucleus and Putamen)
    3. Lateral Dorsal Striatum (Putamen)
  2. Globus Pallidus
  3. Substantia Nigra (Midbrain)
    1. Divided into the pars compacta and pars reticulata
      1. Melanin containing cells in pars compacta produce Dopamine which is transmitted to the Dorsal Striatum
      2. Parkinsonism results when Dopamine production is deficient
    2. Functions
      1. Movement including eye movement (see Pars compacta as above
      2. Reward-seeking and addiction
  4. Nucleus Accumbens
  5. Subthalamic Nucleus

III. Anatomy: Images

  1. neuroBrainXsGrayBB716.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  2. neuroStriatumGrayBB741.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

IV. Pathophysiology

  1. Parkinsonism
    1. Basal Ganglia degeneration
    2. Substantia Nigra degeneration
  2. Other Movement Disorders
    1. See Movement Disorder
    2. Chorea (e.g. Huntington's Chorea, Sydenham's Chorea)
    3. Athetosis
    4. Hemiballismus

V. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 61-4
  2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 104

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Ontology: Basal Ganglia (C0004781)

Definition (NCI) Clusters of neurons comprising the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus. They are involved with high level aspects of inhibitory motor activity in coordination with the excitation commands issued from the cerebellum.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Clusters of neurons comprising the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus. They are involved with high level aspects of inhibitory motor activity in coordination with the excitation commands issued from the cerebellum. (NCI)
Definition (MSH) Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Definition (CSP) subcortical masses of gray matter of the cerebrum, namely, the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala, and clastrum; involved in initiating and directing voluntary movements.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D001479
SnomedCT 32610002
English Basal Ganglia, Basal Nuclei, Ganglia, Basal, Ganglion, Basal, Nuclei, Basal, Basal ganglia structure, Basal ganglion, Basal ganglion structure, Basal ganglia structure (body structure), Basal nucleus, Basal ganglion structure (body structure), Basal nucleus structure, Basal ganglia set, Set of basal ganglia, basal ganglion, Set of basal nuclei, BG, basal nuclei, basal ganglia (anatomic), basal ganglia, Nuclei basales, corpus striatum (Savel'ev), Ganglia basales, BASAL GANGLIA, BRAIN, BASAL GANGLIA, Basal ganglia, Basal nuclei structure, Basal ganglia, NOS
French Noyaux basaux du télencéphale, Ganglions de la base, Noyaux de la base, Noyaux basaux, Noyaux gris centraux, Noyau basal du télencéphale
Swedish Basalganglier
Spanish ganglio basal, estructura de los ganglios basales (estructura corporal), estructura de ganglio basal, ganglios basales, estructura de ganglio basal (estructura corporal), estructura de los ganglios basales, estructura de núcleo basal, Ganglios Basales, Núcleos Basales
Czech bazální ganglia, bazální jádra
Finnish Tyvitumakkeet
Italian Ganglio basale, Nuclei basali, Gangli basali
Russian BAZAL'NYE GANGLII, OGRADA MOZGA, PODKORKOVYE IADRA, GANGLII BAZAL'NYE, BAZAL'NYE IADRA, БАЗАЛЬНЫЕ ГАНГЛИИ, БАЗАЛЬНЫЕ ЯДРА, ГАНГЛИИ БАЗАЛЬНЫЕ, ОГРАДА МОЗГА, ПОДКОРКОВЫЕ ЯДРА
Japanese 前障, 基底神経節, 基底核, 大脳核, 脳幹神経節, 大脳基底核, 脳底神経節
Croatian Not Translated[Basal Ganglia]
Latvian Not Translated[Basal Ganglia]
Polish Jądra podstawy, Jądra podstawne, Zwoje podstawne, Przedmurze
Norwegian Basalganglier
Portuguese Núcleos Basais, Gânglios Basais, Gânglios da Base, Núcleos da Base
German Basalganglien, Basalkerne, Ganglien, Basal-
Dutch Basale ganglia, Basale kernen, Ganglia, basale

Ontology: Caudate nucleus structure (C0007461)

Definition (FMA) Nucleus of brain which is an elongated crescent-shaped mass lying parallel and adjacent to the lateral ventricle throughout its extent.
Definition (NCI) An elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain. (MeSH)
Definition (NCI_CDISC) An elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Definition (CSP) elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D002421
SnomedCT 11000004
English Caudate Nucleus, Nucleus, Caudate, CN - Caudate nucleus, caudatus, caudate nucleus, Cd, Nucleus caudatus, CAUDATE NUCLEUS, Caudatus, Caudatus, Nucleus, Nucleus Caudatus, Caudate nucleus, Caudate nucleus structure (body structure), Caudate nucleus structure, Caudate nucleus, NOS
Swedish Nucleus caudatus
Czech nucleus caudatus
Finnish Häntätumake
Russian KHVOSTATOE IADRO, ХВОСТАТОЕ ЯДРО
Polish Jądro ogoniaste
Norwegian Nucleus caudatus, Halekjerne
Spanish estructura del núcleo caudado (estructura corporal), estructura del núcleo caudado, núcleo caudado, Núcleo Caudado
French Noyau caudé, Noyau intra-ventriculaire du corps strié, Noyau intraventriculaire du corps strié
German Nucleus caudatus
Italian Nucleo caudato
Dutch Nucleus caudatus
Portuguese Núcleo Caudado

Ontology: Globus Pallidus (C0017651)

Definition (FMA) Nucleus of brain which is located medially to the putamen and laterally to the internal capsule.
Definition (NCI) The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D005917
SnomedCT 279322000, 14738005
English Globus Pallidus, Structure of globus pallidus, globus pallidus (Burdach), pallidum, pallidum broadly defined, globus pallidus, GP, paleostriatum, extended pallidum, pallidum extended, Nucleus pallidus, Structure of globus pallidus (body structure), Pallidums, Pallidum, Paleostriatum, Globus pallidus, GP - Globus pallidus, Globus pallidus structure (body structure), Globus pallidus structure, Globus pallidus, NOS
Swedish Bleka klotet
Czech globus pallidus
Spanish Globo Pálido, Globus Pallidus, Núcleo Pálido, Paleoestriado, estructura del globo pálido (estructura corporal), estructura del globo pálido, globo pálido, paleoestriado, pálido
Finnish Linssitumakkeen pallo
French Globus pallidus
Russian BLEDNYI SHAR, PALEOSTRIATUM, PALLIDUM, БЛЕДНЫЙ ШАР, ПАЛЕОСТРИАТУМ, ПАЛЛИДУМ
Polish Gałka blada
Norwegian Globus pallidus
Portuguese Paleoestriado, Globo Pálido
German Globus pallidus, Pallidum
Italian Globus pallidus
Dutch Globus pallidus

Ontology: Nucleus Accumbens (C0028633)

Definition (NCI) A nucleus composed of neurons in the forebrain.
Definition (MSH) Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Definition (PSY) One of the largest nuclei in the septal region lying anteriorly and medially to the junction of the caudate nucleus and putamen and laterally to the septal nuclei.
Definition (CSP) part of the limbic lobe and the hypothalamic-limbic system; collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, in the region of the olfactory tubercle, lying between the head of the caudate nucleus and the anterior perforated substance; it is part of the ventral striatum, a composite structure considered part of the basal ganglia; involved in narcotic addiction.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D009714
SnomedCT 427667007
English Accumbens, Nucleus, Nucleus accumbens (body structure), Nucleus accumbens, Accumbens nucleus, Colliculus of caudate nucleus, Acb, colliculus of caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, accumbens nucleus, Nucleus Accumbens, Nucleus accumbens septi, Colliculus nuclei caudati, Nucleus Accumbens Septi, Nucleus Accumbens Septus, Nucleus, Accumbens, Accumbens Septus, Nucleus, Septus, Nucleus Accumbens, Septi, Nucleus Accumbens, Accumbens Septi, Nucleus, Accumbens Nucleus
Swedish Nucleus accumbens
Czech nucleus accumbens
Finnish Makaava tumake
Russian ЯДРО ПРИЛЕЖАЩЕЕ, IADRO PRILEZHASHCHEE
Spanish núcleo accumbens, nucleus accumbens (estructura corporal), nucleus accumbens, núcleo accumbens (estructura corporal), Núcleo Accumbens
Polish Jądro półleżące
Norwegian Nucleus accumbens
Portuguese Núcleo Acumbente, Núcleo Accumbens
French Noyau accumbens
German Nucleus accumbens
Italian Nucleo accombente
Dutch Nucleus accumbens

Ontology: Structure of putamen (C0034169)

Definition (FMA) Nucleus of brain which lies ventral to the caudate nucleus and internal capsule and medial to the external capsule.
Definition (NCI) A structure located in the middle of the brain. The putamen is part of the basal ganglia and together with the caudate forms the striatum that influences motor activity.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The largest and most lateral of the basal ganglia lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the globus pallidus and the external capsule. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the lentiform nucleus along with the globus pallidus. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Definition (PSY) The largest and most lateral part of the basal ganglia which, together with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus, forms the corpus striatum.
Definition (CSP) largest and most lateral of the basal ganglia lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the globus pallidus and the external capsule; it is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the lentiform nucleus along with the globus pallidus; lesions of the putamen produce athetoid movements on the opposite side of the body.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D011699
SnomedCT 89278009
English Putamen, Putamens, Pu, putamen, Nucleus putamen, PUTAMEN, Putamens, Nucleus, Nucleus Putamen, Nucleus Putamens, Putamen, Nucleus, Structure of putamen (body structure), Structure of putamen
Swedish Putamen
Czech putamen
Finnish Aivokuorukka
Russian SKORLUPA, SKORLUPA CHECHEVITSEOBRAZNOGO IADRA POLOSATOGO TELA, СКОРЛУПА, СКОРЛУПА ЧЕЧЕВИЦЕОБРАЗНОГО ЯДРА ПОЛОСАТОГО ТЕЛА
Polish Skorupa-anatomia
Norwegian Putamen
Spanish estructura del putamen (estructura corporal), estructura del putamen, putamen, Putamen
French Putamen
German Putamen
Italian Putamen
Dutch Putamen
Portuguese Putamen

Ontology: Substantia nigra structure (C0038590)

Definition (FMA) Subdivision of the midbrain anterior to the midbrain tegmentum which contains darkly pigmented neurons.
Definition (NCI) A large cell mass extending forward, over the dorsal surface of the crus cerebri, from the rostral border of the pons into the subthalamic region. It is composed of a dorsal stratum of closely spaced pigmented cells, the pars compacta, and a larger ventral region of widely scattered cells, the pars reticulata. The pars compacta includes numerous cells that project forward to the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and contain dopamine, which acts as the primary neurotransmitter at the synaptic endings. Other, apparently non-dopaminergic cells project to portions of the ventral nucleus of thalamus, the superior colliculus and reticular formation. The nigrostriatal projection is reciprocated by a striatonigral fiber system with multiple neurotransmitters, chief among which is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The substantia nigra is involved in the metabolic disturbances associated with Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) A large cell mass extending forward, over the dorsal surface of the crus cerebri, from the rostral border of the pons into the subthalamic region. It is composed of a dorsal stratum of closely spaced pigmented cells, the pars compacta, and a larger ventral region of widely scattered cells, the pars reticulata. The pars compacta includes numerous cells that project forward to the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and contain dopamine, which acts as the primary neurotransmitter at the synaptic endings. Other, apparently non-dopaminergic cells project to portions of the ventral nucleus of thalamus, the superior colliculus and reticular formation. The nigrostriatal projection is reciprocated by a striatonigral fiber system with multiple neurotransmitters, chief among which is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The substantia nigra is involved in the metabolic disturbances associated with Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. (NCI)
Definition (CSP) layer of gray substance that separates the posterior parts of the cerebral peducles from the anterior parts.
Definition (MSH) The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D013378
SnomedCT 70007007
English Nigra, Substantia, Nigras, Substantia, Substantia Nigra, Substantia Nigras, SN - Substantia nigra, Nucleus of basis pedunculi, Soemmering's substance, substantia nigras, SN, nucleus of basis pedunculi, substantia nigra, Nucleus pigmentosus subthalamo-peduncularis, substantia nigra (Soemmerringi), SUBSTANTIA NIGRA, BRAIN, SUBSTANTIA NIGRA, Substantia nigra, Substantia nigra structure (body structure), Substantia nigra structure
French Substance noire, Locus niger de Soemmering, Locus niger, Substantia nigra
Swedish Substantia nigra
Czech substantia nigra
Finnish Mustatumake
Russian CHERNOE VESHCHESTVO, ZEMMERINGA VESHCHESTVO, ЗЕММЕРИНГА ВЕЩЕСТВО, ЧЕРНОЕ ВЕЩЕСТВО
Croatian SUBSTANTIA NIGRA
Latvian Melnā viela
Polish Istota czarna
Norwegian Substantia nigra
Spanish Sustancia Nigra, estructura de la sustancia negra (estructura corporal), estructura de la sustancia negra, sustancia negra, Sustancia Negra
German Substantia nigra
Italian Sostanza nera
Dutch Substantia nigra
Portuguese Substância Negra

Ontology: subthalamic nucleus development (C1818328)

Definition (GO) The progression of the subthalamic nucleus over time from its initial formation until its mature state. The subthalamic nucleus is the lens-shaped nucleus located in the ventral part of the subthalamus on the inner aspect of the internal capsule that is concerned with the integration of somatic motor function. [GO_REF:0000021, GOC:cls, GOC:dgh, GOC:dph, GOC:jid, GOC:mtg_15jun06, ISBN:0878937420]
Concepts Organ or Tissue Function (T042)
English subthalamic nucleus development

Ontology: Dorsal striatum (C2333957)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
English Striatum dorsale, dorsal striatum, Dorsal striatum